RAP
Response Area Data Analysis
Users Guide
 
Table of Contents
  1. Introduction
  2. Usage
  3. How RAP computes statistics
  4. Command Macros
  5. List of Commands
  6. Notes
  7. References
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. Appendix-A (Multi-Unit Analysis)
  10. Sample Plots
  11. Alphabet. List of All Commands
 

 
Ravi Kochhar
Department of Physiology
University of Wisconsin
Madison, Wi. 53706
 
Technical Report no. 7
April 1988
Rev. 3.16, Mar. 24, 2005
 
Back to Computing Page
1. Introduction

The Response Area Analysis Program (RAP) is designed to do most types of analyses for unit data collected in the auditory lab. At present (2000), it runs on DEC VAXstations and Alphastations running the OpenVMS operating system, and is in the process of being converted to work in Windows/2000 systems. Data collected using various programs, and on different computers (e.g. the Harris, the PDP-11 and the MicroVAX), can be analyzed with RAP. The only restriction is that data storage be described by a valid Schema and follow the guidelines described in reference #'s 1,2 and 3. The program offers the user a uniform interface and consistency in data analysis.

RAP operates in Command Mode, i.e. it accepts commands from the user and takes appropriate action. Several commands can be grouped together into a "macro" which can then be invoked with a single command.

RAP commands are intended to be logical and English-like. For example, the command "NUM GR X #" can be used to specify the number of grids along the X-axis on plots. A list of the presently available commands is attached at the end of this report. The command list is frequently updated as new commands are added.

One of the goals of RAP is to make data analysis easier and faster. This is achieved primarily by the use of command macros. The user can, in effect, specify his/her experimental paradigm in advance by constructing appropriate macros, and then, after data collection, start data analysis by invoking these macros from RAP.

RAP includes commands to start other programs. Available soon will be the facility to start other programs asynchronously, i.e. control returns to RAP immediately upon starting the other program. This will allow, for example, data analysis programs to run in parallel with data collection.

Back to Top

2. Usage

The program is started by typing :

		$RAP

at any terminal.

The program waits for user input with the following prompt:

		RAP>

Commands may now be entered individually or a macro may be started by entering the "EM" command.

Back to Top

4. Command Macros

A series of RAP commands may be combined into a Command Macro and then invoked by simply specifying the macro name in the "EM..." command.

Each macro is contained in a separate file on disc, and the macro name is the same as the file name. Any valid RAP commands can be used within a macro to tailor the macro for individual experimental paradigms. Comments may be inserted within a macro by preceding them with an asterisk (*). Macros may be created and edited using standard system editors (such as EVE or EDT on the VAX). By convention, all macro file names should be given the extension .MCO or .MCORAP

At present there is a limit of 1000 records per macro (including comments) and 72 characters per record. It is possible to invoke one macro from within another, thus extending the number of commands possible. Macros may be nested to three levels. This means that if macro A calls macro B, then B can in turn call macro C, but C cannot call any other macro.

Macro files may be created in any sub-directory on disk, but for convenience and future compatibility it is recommended that they be placed in their own separate sub-directory named [.MCO]. The [.MCO] directory should be one level below your main login directory. RAP will first search the [.MCO] subdirectory for macros before looking in the current directory.

Sample Macros

The following sample macro illustrates how RAP commands can be used to tailor data analyses. Note the use of comments inside the macros. Comments may begin with an asterisk (*) if the entire line is a comment, of they may begin with a double slash (//) if there is a command preceding the comment. The asterisk for comments is provided only for backwards compatibility, and a double slash (//) should be used in all new macros.


		Sample Data Analysis Macro


		NX DS ERR=30
		GV C1 EXTYP
		IF C1 EQ RA GO 7
		IF C1 EQ NRC GO 14
		IF C1 EQ AM GO 19
		GO 1
		* RESPONSE AREA
		PL SP COUNT
		GV V1 NUMY
		PP X V1              // number of plots per page
		PP Y 4
		PL PST
		GO 1
		// NOISE RATE CURVE
		PL SP RATE
		NB 512               // set number of bins to 512
		PL PST
		GO 1
		* AMPLITUDE MODULATION
		PL SP RATE
		NB 64
		HI BF FMOD
		PL CH
		PL SYNC
		GV V1 FCARR
		HI BF V1
		PL CH
		PL SYNC
		GO 1
		EXIT


Macro Statement Labels

Records in macros can have 'labels'. The label should be the first item in the record, and be separated from the rest of the command by a colon (:). For example :


		START:  NX DS ERR=END
                        GV C1 EXTYP
                        IF C1 EQ RA GO LAB1
                        GO START
		//      RESPONSE AREA
		LAB1:   PL SP COUNT
                        PL PST
                        GO START
		END:    EXIT

Labels can be 1 to 8 characters long and can include any combination of alphabetic (a-z) and numeric (0-9) characters, of which at least one character must be alphabetic (a-z). Thus "start", "end", "L19" or "19L" are all valid labels, while "19" "1" or "1234" are not.

Labels are case sensitive, thus "HIGH" is different from "High".

Macro variables

Most numeric or character values in RAP commands can be replaced by variable names in macros. For example, the V1 in the above macro is a numeric variable and C1 is a character variable.

By default, variable names of the type V1,V2,V3.... imply single numeric values, C1,C2,C3.... imply character strings, and A1,A2,A3.... imply single dimensioned arrays (vectors). You can declare your own variable names in a macro with the "REAL" and "CHAR" commands. Arrays should be dimensioned with the "DIM.." command. For example:


                        CHAR EXP
                        REAL STIM
                        DIM A3(1000)
		START:	NX DS ERR=END
                        GV EXP EXTYP
                        IF EXP EQ RA GO LAB1
                        GO START
		//      RESPONSE AREA
		LAB1:   PL SP COUNT
                        GV STIM STMDUR
                        GV A3 RATAB
                        NB STIM
                        PL PST
                        GO START
		END:    EXIT

In this example, EXP is a character variable and STIM is a numeric variable. User defined variable names can be upto 8 characters long.

Back to Top

5. List of Commands (1)

Specify Commands

 DF @@@...@@@              Specify data file name (87)
 ID @@@...@@@ [ERR=#]      Specify data set ID (2)
 ID2 @@@...@@@             Specify second data set ID (143)
 ID3 @@@...@@@             Specify third data set ID (143)
 GWF @@@...@@@             Specify General Waveform file name (240)
 GWID @@@...@@@            Specify General Waveform ID (241)
 DS #                      Specify data set number (2)
 NX DS [ERR=#]             Next data set. Optionally branch to
                           specified record in macro on error (84)
 HELP                      List all available commands (79)
 SET DEF                   Set all parameters to default(100)
 AW #1 #2 [#3 #4...#n #m]  Specify analysis window (msecs) (3)
 AW DEF                    Default value for analysis window (4)
 RW #1 #2 [#3 #4...#n #m]  Specify reject window (msecs) (243)
 RW DEF                    Default value for reject window (243)
 SET SPIK CHAN #1 #2 ...   Specify UET channel numbers(192)
 SET SPIK CHAN DEF         Set default UET channel numbers(192)
 SET SPIK CHAN ALL         Select all UET channel numbers(192)
 SUB #                     Subtract constant from each spike time
                           before analysis (in millisecs)(default=0) (112)
 TR #1 #2 [#3 #4...#n #m]  Specify trials to be included in analyses (94)
 TR DEF                    Default value for trial numbers (95)
 MIN IS #                  Minimum Interspike Interval allowed (millsecs)(168)
 XN #                      Minimum value along X-axis (5)
 XM #                      Maximum value along X-axis (5)
 YN #                      Minimum value along Y-axis (5)
 YM #                      Maximum value along Y-axis (5)
 ZN #                      Minimum value along Z-axis (5)
 ZM #                      Maximum value along Z-axis (5)
 XN DEF                    Default value for X-minimum (7)
 XM DEF                    Default value for X-maximum (7)
 YN DEF                    Default value for Y-minimum (7)
 YM DEF                    Default value for Y-maximum (7)
 ZN DEF                    Default value for Z-minimum (7)
 ZM DEF                    Default value for Z-maximum (7)
 TINC X #                  Tic increment along X-axis (224)
 TINC Y #                  Tic increment along Y-axis (224)
 TINC Z #                  Tic increment along Z-axis (224)
 TINC X DEF                Default Tic increment along X-axis (224)
 TINC Y DEF                Default Tic increment along Y-axis (224)
 TINC Z DEF                Default Tic increment along Z-axis (224)
 FTIC X #                  Location of First Tic along X-axis (225)
 FTIC Y #                  Location of First Tic along Y-axis (225)
 FTIC Z #                  Location of First Tic along Z-axis (225)
 FTIC X DEF                Default Location of First Tic along X (225)
 FTIC Y DEF                Default Location of First Tic along Y (225)
 FTIC Z DEF                Default Location of First Tic along Z (225)
 FTIC XL #                 First Tic with a Label for X-axis (226)
 FTIC YL #                 First Tic with a Label for Y-axis (226)
 FTIC ZL #                 First Tic with a Label for Z-axis (226)
 FTIC XL DEF               Default First Tic with a Label for X-axis (226)
 FTIC YL DEF               Default First Tic with a Label for Y-axis (226)
 FTIC ZL DEF               Default First Tic with a Label for Z-axis (226)
 AUTO XX                   Auto-scaling for X-axis (6)
 AUTO YX                   Auto-scaling for Y-axis (6)
 AUTO ZX                   Auto-scaling for Z-axis (6)
 AUTO AX                   Auto-scaling for X-,Y- and Z-axis (6)
 LOG XX/YX/ZX              X-,Y- or Z-axis to be Log
 LIN XX/YX/ZX              X-,Y- or Z-axis to be linear
 SPV X A# Y A# Z A#        Specify arrays that hold plot variables (236)
 NB #                      No. of bins in histogram (max 32768)
 NB DEF                    No. of histogram bins to default (93)
 WAIT #                    Wait specified number of seconds
 WAIT PLOT                 Wait for plots to finish
 !WAIT QUEUE [PL/HP/PR]    Wait for print Queue to free up (104)
 WAIT                      Same as "WAIT PLOT" followed by "WAIT QUEUE"
 *                         No-op, comment line, ignored by RAP (21)
 //                        No-op, comment line, ignored by RAP (21)
 SET QUEUE @@@..@@         Specify name of plotter queue (128)
 SET QUEUE DEF             Plotter queue to default (129)
 !RUN @@..@@               Run the specified program (22)
 XC @@..@@                 Execute the specified system command (23)
 PP #	                   Plots per page (27)
 PP X #                    Plots/page in X-direction (27)
 PP Y #                    Plots/page in Y-direction (27)
 PP X/Y DEF                Plots/page in X- or Y-dir to default (28)
 PP DEF                    Plots/page to default along X- and Y- (28)
 NUM GR X/Y/Z #            Number of Grids along X-,Y- or Z-axis (29)
 NUM GR X/Y/Z DEF          No. of grids along X,Y or Z to default (29)
 NUM DIG XL/YL/ZL #        No. of digits after decimal point for
                           X-,Y- and Z-labels (30)
 NUM DIG XL/YL/ZL DEF      No. of digits after decimal to default (31)
 NUM GBL X/Y/Z #           No. of grids between labels along
                           X-,Y- or Z-axis (32)
 NUM GBL X/Y/Z DEF         No. of grids between labels to def (33)
 NUM MS #/DEF              No. of messages with output (0 to 50)
 NUM CAP #/DEF             No. of captions with plot (0 to 100)
 NUM PGCAP #               No. of page captions w/plot (0 to 6) (131)
 NUM SPIKE #               Spike number for Latency computation (132)
 NUM ARROW #/DEF           Number of Arrows with plot (206)
 HI BF @@..@@              Binning freq for cyc histograms (35)
 HI BFI #1 #2              Binning freq for cyc histograms to start 
                           at #1 Hz and incr by #2 Hz each time (36)
 HI BF DEF                 Histogram binning frequency to default
 HI SH #                   Histograms to be Shaded using specified pattern (37)
 HI SH DEF                 Histogram shading to default (37)
 HI UN                     Histograms to be Unshaded (37)
 HI OUT/FULL               Histogram outlines only or full bars (38)
 HI YV RATE/COUNT          Hist. Y-axis to be Spike rate/Count (105)
 HI XN #/DEF               Hist. X-min for use with "OU FFA.." (219)
 HI XM #/DEF               Hist. X-max for use with "OU FFA.." (219)
 HI MIRROR YES/NO/DEF      Mirror image of histogram(s) (253)
 SET YX RIGHT/LEFT         Plot axis to use as the Y-axis (134)
 SET YX DEF                Set plot Y-axis to default (134)
 SET MS #1 "..." [V#/C# "..." V#/C# ...]  Set value of message
					  number #1 (upto 80 chars) (106)
 SET CAP #1 "..." [V#/C# "..." V#/C# ...] Set value of caption 
                                          number #1 (upto 40 chars) (106,218)
 SET XT "..." [V#/C# "..." V#/C# ...]     Set value of X-axis Title (upto 80 chars) (106,218)
 SET YT "..." [V#/C# "..." V#/C# ...]     Set value of Y-axis Title (upto 80 chars)(106,218)
 SET ZT "..." [V#/C# "..." V#/C# ...]     Set value of Z-axis Title (upto 80 chars)(106,218)
 SET XT/YT/ZT DEF          Set specified title to default (67)
 SET PGCAP #1 "..." [V#/C# "..." V#/C# ...] Set value of page caption
                                            number #1 (upto 200 chars) (106,131,218)
 SET TABH "....."          Set Table Header string value (upto 40 chars) (213)
 SET TABH DEF              Set Table Header value to default (213)
 ADD TAB #/DEF             Add a constant to symbol table values (220)
 SET ARROW # x1 y1 x2 y2 ["...."]         Set endpoints for arrow no. # (208)
 SPF [OLD] @@@...@@@       Specify name of existing spool file (8)
 SPF NEW [@@@...@@@]       Create new spool file. Optionally specify it's name (8)
 SPF ZERO                  Clear contents of current spool file
 SPF FF                    Write a "Form Feed" into spool file (90)
 STF [OLD] @@@...@@@       Specify name of existing STATPK file (107)
 STF NEW [@@..@@]          Create new STATPK file (108)
 SET SID @@@..@@           ID for saved STATPK datasets (185)
 SZ @@ #                   Size of any of the following (inches) (39)
                                XX   : X-axis
                                YX   : Y-axis
                                ZX   : Z-axis
                                AX   : All axes
                                XT   : X-title characters
                                YT   : Y-title characters
                                ZT   : Z-title characters
                                TI   : All title characters
                                XL   : X-axis label chars.
                                YL   : Y-axis label chars.
                                ZL   : Z-axis label chars.
                                LA   : All axes label characters
                                TAB  : Table characters
                                TABH : Table Header characters
                                DOTS : Latency dots
                                DATE : Date characters
                                PGXT : Page X-title chars
                                PGYT : Page Y-title chars
                                PGTI : Page title chars
                                PGCAP: Page Captions
                                SRSY : Spontaneous Rate symbol
                                TIC XX : Tic marks along X-axis (152)
                                TIC YX : Tic marks along Y-axis (152)
                                TIC ZX : Tic marks along Z-axis (152)
                                TIC BX : Tic marks -bottom axis (152)
                                TIC LX : Tic marks - left axis (152)
                                TIC TX : Tic marks - top axis (152)
                                TIC RX : Tic marks - right axis (152)
                                TIC AX : Tic marks for all axes (152)
 SZ SY #1 #2...#n          Sizes of upto 40 symbols (inches) (40)
 SZ LG #1 #2...#n          Sizes of upto 20 legend line chars (41)
 SZ PGLG  #1 #2...#n       Sizes of upto 20 page legend chars (42)
 SZ MS    #1 #2...#n       Sizes of upto 6 message line chars (43)
 SZ CAP   #1 #2...#n       Sizes of upto 12 caption line chars (44)
 SZ PGCAP #1 #2...#n       Sizes of upto 12 page caption chars (45)
 SZ ATIP #1 #2...#n        Sizes of upto 50 arrow tips (212)
 SZ RAG MAXSY #            Size of max. symbol on RAG plots (137)
 SZ RAG MAXSY DEF          Def. size for max. symbol-RAG plots (137)
 SZ RAG MINSY #	  	   Size of min. symbol on RAG plots (137)
 SZ RAG MINSY DEF	   Def. size for min. symbol-RAG plots (137)
 SZ RAG NDSYM #		   Sz of "nodata" symbols-RAG plots (137,138)
 SZ RAG NDSYM DEF	   Def. size for "nodata" symbols on RAG 	
			   plots (138)
 SZ TABSYM #/SYM/DEF       Size of Table Symbols (174)
 SZ @@ DEF		   Default sizes for any of the above (46)
 SZ ALL DEF		   Default sizes for all of the above (46)
 PX [ABS/REL] @@ #	   Set X- or Y- position of one of the
 PY [ABS/REL] @@ #	   following : (80)
			     PLOT    : Plot axes (lower left corner)
			     CAP(#)  : Caption (upper left corner) (190)
			     MS      : Message (upper left corner)
			     PGCAP   : Page caption
			     LG      : Legend with plot
			     PGLG(#) : Page legend(upper left corner) (189)
			     DATE    : Date
			     PGXT    : Page X-title
			     PGYT    : Page Y-title
			     TAB     : Table (upper left corner)
			     TABH    : Table Header
                             BL      : Bottom-axis labels
                             LL      : Left-axis labels
                             RL      : Right-axis labels
	                     BT      : Bottom-axis title
			     LT      : Left-axis title
			     RT      : Right-axis title
                             TABSYM  : Symbols in tables (221)
 PX/PY @@ DEF		   Any of the above positions to default
 ML NONE/BRIEF/LONG/FULL   Message level (default is FULL) (85)
 V# = #1		   Set value of variable (251)
 V#1 @ V#2		   Replace V#1 using arithmetic opert. (147)
				(@ can be any one of +, -, *, /)
 V#1 GCF V#2		   Compute Greatest Common Factor (148)
 C# @@@...@@@		   Set value of character variable(169)
 C#1 + C#2	           Append C#2 to C#1 and store back in C#1(169)
 GV V#/C#/S#/A#  @@..@@ [ERR=#]	Get value of specified 	
				variable and store in specified 	
				variable. Optionally branch to record 
				# in macro on error condition (86)
 IF @@@1 EQ/NE/GT/LT/LE/GE @@@2 @@@@3	If the variable @@@1
					satisfies the given condition then 
					execute the command @@@@3 (97)
 XV #/@@@..@@		   Set X-var to specified number or name (83)
 YV #/@@@..@@		   Set Y-var to specified number or name (83)
 ZV #/@@@..@@		   Set Z-var to specified number or name (83)
 LW @@ #		   Line weights of any of the following (48)
				BX   : Bottom axis
				TX   : Top axis
				XX   : X-axis (both BX and TX)
				LX   : Left axis
				RX   : Right axis
				YX   : Y-axis (both LX and RX)
				ZX   : Z-axis
				AX   : All axes
				HI   : Histogram bins
				XT   : Title along X-axis
				YT   : Title along Y-axis
				ZT   : Title along Z-axis
				TI   : Titles along all axes
				XL   : Labels along X-axis
				YL   : Labels along Y-axis
				ZL   : Labels along Z-axis
				LA   : Labels along all axes
				TAB  : Table characters
				TABH : Table Header (162)
				GX   : X-grid
				GY   : Y-grid
				GZ   : Z-grid
				GR   : All grids
				DOTS : Latency dots
				PGXT : Page X-title
				PGYT : Page Y-title
				PGTI : Both page titles
				BC   : Box around captions
				PGBC : Box around page captions
				DATE : Date
				SRSY : Spontaneous Rate symbol
				SDV  : Std. Dev. or Error bars (155)
				ERR  : Standard Error bars (155)
				MLIN : Masked Line (154)
				MSYM : Masked Symbol (154)
				AVL  : Averaged Line (217)
				SDAVL: Std. Dev. Line (217)
 LW LI    #1 #2...#n	   Line weights of upto 40 plotted lines (49)
			   (or TABLE columns)
 LW SY    #1 #2...#n	   Line weights of upto 40 symbols (50)
 LW LG    #1 #2...#n	   Line weights of upto 20 legends (51)
 LW PGLG  #1 #2...#n	   Line weights of upto 20 page legends (52)
 LW MS    #1 #2...#n	   Line weights of upto 6 messages (53)
 LW CAP   #1 #2...#n	   Line weights of upto 12 captions (54)
 LW PGCAP #1 #2...#n	   Line weights of upto 12 page captions (55)
 LW ARROW #1 #2...#n	   Line weights of upto 40 arrows (207)
 LW RAG DATA # 		   Line weight of RAG data symbols (136)
 LW RAG DATA DEF	   Line wt. of RAG data symbols to def. (136)
 LW RAG NODATA #	   Line wts of RAG "nodata" symbols (136,138)
 LW RAG NODATA DEF	   Def Line wts for RAG "nodata" symbs. (138)
 LW ALL #	  	   Line weights of all of the above (56)
 LW @@ DEF		   Default line wts for any of the above (57)
 LW ALL DEF		   Default line wts for all of the above (57)
 FONT @@ #		   Character Font number of any of : (59)
				XT   : Titles along X-axis
				YT   : Titles along Y-axis
				ZT   : Titles along Z-axis
				TI   : Titles along all axes
				XL   : Labels along X-axis
				YL   : Labels along Y-axis
				ZL   : Labels along Z-axis
				LA   : Labels along all axes
                                TAB  : Table characters
                                TABH : Table Heading
				PGXT : Page X-title
				PGYT : Page Y-title
				PGTI : Both page titles
				DATE : Date with plots
 FONT LG #1 #2...#n	   Fonts for upto 20 legends (60)
 FONT PGLG #1 #2...#n	   Fonts for upto 20 page legends (61)
 FONT MS #1 #2...#n	   Fonts for upto 6 messages (62)
 FONT CAP #1 #2...#n	   Fonts for upto 12 captions (63)
 FONT PGCAP #1 #2...#n	   Fonts for upto 12 page captions (64)
 FONT ALL #		   Font for all of the above (65)
 FONT @@ DEF		   Default font for any of the above (59)
 FONT ALL DEF		   Default font for all of the above (59)
 COL @@ #		   Color for any of the following : (68)
				BX   : Bottom axis
				TX   : Top axis
				XX   : X-axis (both BX and TX)
				LX   : Left axis
				RX   : Right axis
				YX   : Y-axis (both LX and RX)
				ZX   : Z-axis
				AX   : All axes
				HI   : Histogram bins
				XT   : Title along X-axis
				YT   : Title along Y-axis
				ZT   : Title along Z-axis
				TI   : Titles along all axes
				XL   : Labels along X-axis
				YL   : Labels along Y-axis
				ZL   : Labels along Z-axis
				LA   : Labels along all axes
				GX   : X-grid
				GY   : Y-grid
				GZ   : Z-grid
				GR   : All grids
				DOTS : Latency dots
				PGXT : Page X-title
				PGYT : Page Y-title
				PGTI : Both page titles
				BC   : Box around captions
				PGBC : Box around page captions
				DATE : Date
				SRSY : Spontaneous Rate symbol
				AVL  : Averaged Line (217)
				SDAVL: Std. Dev. Line (217)
 COL LI #1 #2...#n	   Colors of upto 40 plotted lines (69)
 COL SY #1 #2...#n	   Colors of upto 40 symbols (70)
 COL LG #1 #2...#n	   Colors of upto 20 legends (71)
 COL PGLG #1 #2...#n	   Colors of upto 20 page legends (72)
 COL MS #1 #2...#n	   Colors of upto 6 messages (73)
 COL CAP #1 #2...#n	   Colors of upto 12 captions (74)
 COL PGCAP #1 #2...#n	   Colors of upto 12 page captions (75)
 COL ALL #		   Colors of all of the above (76)
 COL @@ DEF		   Default Colors for any of the above (77)
 COL ALL DEF		   Default Colors for all of the above (78)
 STYLE @@ #		   Line style for any of following : (102)
				GX   : X-grid
				GY   : Y-grid
				GZ   : Z-grid
				GR   : All grids
				HI   : Histogram bins
				BC   : Box around captions
				PGBC : Box around page captions
				MLIN : Masked Line (154)
				AVL  : Averaged Line (217)
				SDAVL: Std. Dev. Line (217)
 STYLE LI #1 #2...#n	   Line styles of upto 40 plotted lines (103)
 STYLE ARROW #1 #2...#n	   Line styles of upto 40 arrows (214)
 STYLE ALL #		   Line styles of all of the above (102)
 STYLE @@ DEF		   Default line styles for any of above (102)
 STYLE ALL DEF		   Default line styles for all of above (102)
 RR			   Re-set range of X-,Y- and Z-variables (81)
 RR DEF			   Default range for X-,Y- and Z-variables (81)
 RR X #1 #2 [#3]	   Re-set range of X-variable (81,82)
 RR Y #1 #2 [#3]	   Re-set range of Y-variable (81,82)
 RR Z #1 #2 [#3]	   Re-set range of Z-variable (81,82)
 RR SEQ #1 #2 [#3]	   Re-set range of stimulus points (81,99)
 RR SEQ DEF		   Def. range for stim. points (all of them) (81)
 SEP TAB/SPACE		   Separator between Cols of output (109)
 PER PKL #		   Percent for Peak Latency computation (121)
 PER PKL DEF		   Default percent for Peak Latency (121)
 SM PKL #		   Smoothing for peak latncy comput (113,115)
 SM PKL DEF		   Default smoothing for peak latency (113)
 SM LIN #		   Smoothing for plotted data lines (114,115)
 SM LIN DEF		   Default smoothing for data lines (114)
 SM HIS #		   Smoothing for plotted histograms (116,115)
 SM HIS DEF		   Default smoothing for histograms (116)
 SM IR #		   Smoothing for RA for IR comput. (120,115)
 SM IR DEF		   Default smoothing for IR computation (120)
 SET SPEC FORMAT @@@@	   Spectrogram format to WATER/GRID/DEF (195)
 SET SPEC RES #		   Spectrogram time res. (millisecs) (122)
 SET SPEC RES DEF	   Default time res. for spectrogram (122)
 SET SPEC WIN #		   Spectrogm sliding time wndow(msecs) (123)
 SET SPEC WIN DEF	   Default size for spec. time window (123)
 SET SPEC SCALE @@@@ [#]   Set Z-axis (symbol size) scaling for Spectrogram
                           or IAC plots to LINEAR/DB/AREA/POW/LOG/DEF(179)
 SET SPEC MINF #	   Set "Minimum Frequency" for spectrograms (191)
 SET SPEC MINF DEF	   Default "Minimum Frequency" for spectrograms (191)
 SET SPEC YDENS #	   "Y-density" for spectrograms (200)
 SET SPEC YDENS DEF	   Default "Y-density" for spectrograms (200)
 SYM DOT #		   Symbol # for latency dot display (124)
 SYM DOT DEF		   Latency Dot symbol to default (125)
 SYM SPEC #		   Symbol # for spectrograms (124)
 SYM SPEC DEF		   Spectrogram symbol to default (126)
 SYM RA #1 #2...#n	   Symbs. for upto 40 lines on RA plots (140)
 SYM RA DEF		   RA plot symbols to default (140)
 SET RA SYM OPAQ/TRANS     Set RA symbols to Opaque or Transparent (230)
 SYM RAG DATA #		   Symbol # for RAG data points (124,139)
 SYM RAG DATA DEF	   Default symbol for RAG data points (139)
 SYM RAG DATA NUM	   Numeric values for RAG data points (139)
 SYM RAG NODATA #	   Symb. # for RAG "nodata" pts (124,138,139)
 SYM RAG NODATA DEF	   Def symb for RAG "nodata" points (138,139)
 SYM RAG NODATA NUM	   Numeric vals-RAG "nodata" points (138,139)
 SET RAG BASE #		   Set baseline for RAG plots (159)
 SET RAG BASE DEF	   Default baseline for RAG plots (159)
 SET RGL WIN #1 #2	   Averagng wndow for regularity analys (130)
 SET RGL WIN DEF	   Set averaging window to default (130)
 SET RGL MINSPK #          Min. intervals/bin for regl. analys (153)
 SET RGL MINSPK DEF        Min. spikes for regularity to def (153)
 SET IR PER #1 #2 ... #n   Percent above spont for Isorate (66)
 SET IR PER DEF		   Set def percents for Isorate curves (66)
 SET IR RATE #1 #2...#n	   Absolute rates - Isorate curves (141)
 SET IR RATE DEF	   Set default rates for Isorate curves (141)
 SET IR COUNT #1 #2...#n   Absolute cnts - Isorate curves (142)
 SET IR COUNT DEF	   Default counts for Isorate curves (142)
 SET IAC BASE #		   Min. Baseline for IAC and PIAC plots(194)
 SET IAC BASE DEF	   Default Baseline for IAC and PIAC plots(194)
 SET PST SSW #1 #2	   Window for Steady-state computation(237)
 SET PST PKW #1 #2	   Window for Peak rate computation(237)
 MU SUB ON/OFF		   Subtract spike train from another (143)
 MU DIFF #		   Subtract window for multi-unit (143)
 MASK RY #		   Set Rayleigh Coefficient mask (144,184)
 MASK RY NONE/DEF	   Cancel Rayleigh Coeff. masking (144)
 VAX #			   Viewing angle along X (degrees) (150)
 VAY #			   Viewing angle along Y (degrees) (150)
 VAX DEF		   Default viewing angle along X (150)
 VAY DEF		   Default viewing angle along Y (150)
 VDIS #			   Viewing dist. for 3D surface plots (151)
 VDIS DEF		   Default viewing distance (151)
 CORR MVA/FELIX/NONE	   Specify node name for UET correction (157)
 CORR CALP #     	   Specify Phone # for Phase Correction (163)
 CORR MCP #     	   Specify Mechanical Phase Correction (165)
 CID1 @@@...@@@            Specify Phone-1 calibration DSID (163)(164)
 CID2 @@@...@@@            Specify Phone-2 calibration DSID (163)(164)
 SET FORMAT # (@@..@@)     Set format for subsequent Read/Write (160)(161)
 MCF @@@...@@@             Specify mechanical calibration file (166)
 MAG [X/Y] #               Specify overall plot magnification (167)
 MAG ZS #                  Specify Z-scale magnification (196)
 ECHO ON/OFF               Echo commands on screen, or not (171)
 SET SORT ALL/UNIQ/DEF     Flag to include/exclude repeat stim. pts after sort (172)
 POR PORT/LAND/DEF         Set plot orientation (173)
 OPF # @@@@@@              Open File for read/write access (175)
 BSFILE #                  Backspace one record over specified file (176)
 CLFILE #                  Close the file previously opened with OPF(205)
 SET FORMAT # (@@..@@)     Set format for subsequent Read/Write (160)(161)
 READ(#,#) @1,@2...        Read from specified file (187)
 WRITE(#,#) @1,@2...       Write to specified file (188)
 DIM A#(#)                 Dimension an array (177)
 SET CP LAG/LEAD/DEF       Set Cumulated Phase direction (178)
 SUB SLOPE YES/NO/DEF      Subtract constant slope from Cumulated Phase (239)
 SET LTRAN X/Y/Z #         Label Transformation code (180)
 SHIGH XR/YR/ZR #1 #2      Symbol Highlighting Range(181)
 SHIGH XR/YR/ZR DEF        Disable Symbol Highlighting (181)
 SYM HIGH #                Symbol code for Highlighting (181)
 MASK @@@ #1 [#2]          Mask with plot units (182,184)
                           @@@ can any one of the following:
                              PXN   : Min value along X
                              PXM   : Max value along X
                              PYN   : Min value along Y
                              PYM   : Max value along Y
                              PZN   : Min value along Z
                              PZM   : Max value along Z
                              PXR   : Range along X (#1 #2)
                              PYR   : Range along Y (#1 #2)
                              PZR   : Range along Z (#1 #2)
 MASK @@@ DEF/NONE         Disable Mask with plot units (182)
                           @@@ can be any one of: PXN,PYM,PYN,PYM,PZN,PZM,
                                                  PXR,PYR,PZR.
 SYM MASK #                Symbol code for masked data (183)
 FFTA A# [V#]              Compute FFT (amplitude) of given array (222)
 FFTP A#                   Compute FFT (phase) of given array (222)
 SET MVM @@@/DEF           Set Missing Value Marker (227)
 HWRECT A#                 Half-Wave rectify an array (256)

Back to Top

Macro Commands

 EM @@..@@		   Execute (run) specified macro (24)
 GO @@..@@		   Branch to specified record (25)
 RETURN			   Return from macro, or, if at level-1, then
			   exit from RAP (26)
 REAL @@@1,@@@2,...,@@@n   User defined real variable names (117,118)
 CHAR @@@1,@@@2,...,@@@n   User defined character variable names (119,118)

Back to Top

Output Commands

 OU DI			   Output directory
 OU PST			   Output Post Stimulus Time Histograms (9)
 OU PST 3D		   Output PST histograms as 3D plots
 OU ISI			   Output Inter-spike interval Histograms (10)
 OU LH			   Output n'th spike latency Histograms (242)
 OU HAZ ISI		   Output Hazard function for ISI histogram (96)
 OU CH			   Output Cycle (or Phase) Histograms (11)
 OU SP [COUNT/RATE/MEAN]   Output spike counts or rates vs. variable (89)
 OU SP 3D [COUNT/RATE/MEAN] Output spike rate/count as 3D surface plot (149)
 OU LSP [COUNT/RATE/MEAN]  Output Locked spike rate/count (186)
 OU LD 		       	   Output Latency Dot Display (88)
 OU AC			   Output Autocorrelation histograms
 OU SAC			   Output Shuffled Autocorrelation histograms (202)
 OU FFA @@		   FFT amplitude of any of the histograms (215)
 OU FFP @@		   FFT phase of any of the histograms (215)
 OU FFA RVC                Amplitude Spectrum of Revcor function (248)
 OU FFP RVC                Phase Spectrum of Revcor function (248)
 OU SYNC		   Output Sync. Coeff. vs variable
 OU SYNC 3D 		   Sync. Coeff. as 3D surface plot (149)
 OU PHASE		   Output Phase vs. variables
 OU PHASE 3D		   Output Phase vs variable as 3D surface plot
 OU CPHASE		   Output Cumulated Phase vs variable
 OU CPHASE 3D		   Output Cumulated Phase vs variable as 3D surface plot (246)
 OU NSREP                  Number of Trials with at least N reps. vs variable(233)
 OU IR			   Output Isorate curves
 OU RA			   Output range of variables
 OU [V#/C#]		   Output specified variable value
 OU STAT		   Table of selected Statistics (91,158)
 OU SPEC PST/AC		   Spectrogram of PST or Autocorrelation histograms(34)
 OU SPEC IAC               Spectrogram of Interval Autocorrelogram (193)
 OU SPEC GW                Spectrogram of general waveform (204)
 OU SPF [SAVE/DEL]	   Output Spool File and optionally save (92)
 OU TH			   Output Threshold (Tuning) curve plot (127)
 OU RGL [CV]		   Regularity analysis (CV vs time) (47,58)
 OU RGL MEAN		   Regularity analysis (Mean & St.dev) (47)
 OU JIH			   Joint Interval Histogram plots (111)
 OU LAT [MEAN/SD]      	   Mean/Std. Dev. of Nth spike latency (132)
 OU LAT 3D		   Mean latency as a 3D surface plot (149)
 OU PKLAT                  Peak spike latency (259)
 OU PKRATE                 Peak spike rate (259)
 OU SSRATE                 Steady-state spike rate (259)
 OU PKSSR                  Peak/Steady-state rate ratio (259)
 OU PND [NORM]		   Output Pulse Number Distribution (133)
 OU RAG COUNT/RATE/LAT	   Output Response Area Grid Map (135,82)
 OU RAG PH/CPH   	   Response Area Grid Map for Phase(135,82)
 OU RAG LAT SD             Std. Dev. of mean N'th spk. Latency in RAG format.(135,210,82)
 OU RAG ARRAY              RAG plot from data in arrays(235)
 OU CC RD		   Output raw data correlogram (143)
 OU CC SPST		   Correlogram aft subtracting PST pred.(143)
 OU CC SAVG		   Correlogram aft. subtracting average (143)
 OU MUSP		   Output multi-unit scatter plot (143)
 OU SNOW		   Output snowflake plot (143)
 OU SPKT		   Output table of spike times (145)
 OU MS #		   Output specified message (146)
 OU CHD			   Output Cycle Histogram Dot display (156)
 OU ZCA			   Output Zero crossing analysis
 OU ZCA PST		   Output Zero Crossing Analysis of PST's
 OU HIS [BC]               Output Histogram from data in array(170)
 OU IAC                    Output Interval Autocorrelogram (193)
 OU PIAC                   Output Pre-Interval Autocorrelogram (193)
 OU TN SP [RATE]           Spike Rate as a function of Trial Number(199)
 OU TN SP COUNT            Spike Count as a function of Trial Number(199)
 OU TN LAT                 Spike Latency as a function of Trial Number(199)
 OU TN SYNC                Sync. Coeff. as a function of Trial Number(199)
 OU RVC                    Revcor. Analysis(232,240)
 OU SCP                    Scatter Plot(249)
 OU WATER                  Waterfall Plot(250)
 OU COMB [SAVE] @@1 @@2 [... @@n]   Combine two or more metafiles and 
			            send to specified device(98)
 OU COMB [SAVE] C#1 TO C#2          Combine a range of metafiles(98)
 OU MF [SAVE] [@@@@]	   Output the specified metafile (101)
 GR @@..@@		   Any of the above with Graphics output (12)
 GN @@..@@		   Graphics output without hardcopy option
 PL @@..@@		   Any of the above to Laser plotter(13)
 PR @@..@@		   Any of the above with printer output (14)
 DI @@..@@		   Any of the above with terminal output (15)
 HP @@..@@		   Any of the above to pen-plotter(16)
 RM @@..@@		   Any of the above with RAMTEK output (17)
 RN @@..@@		   RAMTEK output with no hardcopy option
 SO @@..@@		   Any of the above to Spool-file(18)
 MF @@..@@		   Any of the above to Meta-file(20)
 ST @@..@@		   Any of the above to STATPK file (19)
 NL @@..@@		   Any of the above to Null device(110)
 VS @@..@@		   Any of the above with VAXstation output
 VN @@..@@		   VAXstation output without hardcopy option

Back to Top

Terminate Commands

 EXIT			   Exit from RAP
 END			   Same as EXIT
 QUIT			   Same as EXIT

The numbers in parentheses (...) in the above commands refer to the numbers of the relevant notes which are attached in the following pages.

Commands marked with an exclamation point (!) in the above list are currently in testing stage and may not function fully.

Back to Top

6. Notes

(1) Commands may be entered in either upper of lower case characters, and in many cases may be abbreviated to the first two or three characters. For example, the following commands are identical :

			GR PS
			GRAPH PSTHISTOGRAMS
			gr pst

Note that statement labels in macros are case sensitive.

Commands that are completely blank are ignored, i.e. treated as comments.

Back to List of Commands

(2) A data set may be selected either by specifying its ID with the "ID ..." command or its data set number with the "DS #" command. The latter is most useful when the data set ID contains non-standard characters such as spaces or other control characters.

If the optional "ERR=#" command word is specified, and if the specified data set does not exist, or there is some other error, then control is transferred to record number # in the macro. Note that # may also be a statement label.

Back to List of Commands

(3) The analysis window is specified in units of millisecs. It specifies a range of times for which data is included in subsequent analysis. For example :

          AW 10 250

Here, only spike times which occur in the range of 10 to 250 millisecs after stimulus onset are included in the next analyses commands, all others will be ignored.

The analysis window may simultaneously include upto 10 sub- windows. For example :

          AW 10 250 500 700 800 810

Here all spikes which occur from 10 to 250 msecs OR from 500 to 700 msecs OR from 800 to 810 msecs after stimulus onset will be included.

Back to List of Commands

(4) The default value of the analysis window varies with the type of analysis performed. For example, for Spike rate plots (GR SP), the analysis window defaults to the stimulus duration, while for PST histogram plots (OU PST) the analysis window defaults to the repetition time.

Back to List of Commands

(5) The XN,XM,YN,YM,ZN,ZM commands can be used to fix the specified axes limits. By default, all axes are auto-scaled. For example, if "YM 100" is specified, then Y-max will be fixed at 100 while Y-min will be autoscaled. If "YN 0" is also specified then both YN and YM will be fixed.

Back to List of Commands

(6) The AUTO commands can be used to auto-scale one or more axes on plots. "AUTO AX" will auto-scale all axes, while "AUTO XX" will auto-scale just the X-axis.

Back to List of Commands

(7) The "XN DEF", "YN DEF" etc. commands can be used to specify auto-scaling for specified axes limits. Note that "AUTO XX" is the same as "XN DEF" followed by "XM DEF".

Back to List of Commands

(8) The maximum number of characters in a spool file name is 60. The command word OLD is optional and may be omitted.

Back to List of Commands

(12) The "GR ..." command will display the specified analysis as a graph on the terminal screen. A "Hardcopy (Y/N/L/H) ?" query is displayed at the bottom of the screen. Answering this query with "Y" or "L" will direct the plot to the Laser printer. Answering "H" will send the plot to the HP pen plotter. Answering "N" will erase the screen and no hardcopy will be generated.

Note that you can direct output to a laser printer other than the default by answering the query with "L1" "L2" "L3" etc.

Normally the metafile created by the plot is deleted automatically after the "Hardcopy ?" query is answered. You can save the metafile (for later plotting?) by appending a "K" to your answer. For example, "NK" will not make a hardcopy plot but will save the metafile. "YK" will make the hardcopy plot and also save the metafile. Metafiles have names of the form PLPxxxx.TMP where xxxx are four integer digits. Metafiles are ascii files in postscript format.

Back to List of Commands

(19) The "ST ..." command can be used to transfer the results of RAP analyses to a STATPK file. The file name must first have been specified by an "STF ..." or "STF NEW ..." command.

Back to List of Commands

(21) Any command line where the first non-blank character is an asterisk (*) or a double slash (//) is treated as a comment and ignored by RAP. This feature may be used to include comments in macros.

The asterisk (*) as a comment is provided mainly for backwards compatibilty with older macros, and the double slash (//) should be used instead wherever possible. The double slash (//) may also be inserted on the same line as an RAP command, and used to add a comment on the same line as the command. Anything following a double slash (//) will be ignored.

The following are examples of valid comments:

          * This is a comment
          // This is also a comment
          DF R8814      // this part is the comment
          NB 100        // set number of bins etc.

The following is INVALID.

          NB 100        * This is NOT a valid comment

Back to List of Commands

(23) You can use the "XC ..." command to issue system commands while still within RAP. For example "XC DIR" will display your current directory, and "XC RUN MYPROG" will run the program named MYPROG. Whenever the command is done, control returns automatically to RAP at the place where you issued the XC command.

Any character variables are replaced by their values before execution. For example:

          C3 TEMP2.TMP
          XC RENAME C3 TEMP4.TMP

will result in TEMP2.TMP being renamed to TEMP4.TMP. If C3 were undefined then it is used literally without translation.

The external command to be executed can itself be a character variable. Thus:

            xc c#

The contents of c# are then executed as a command by the operating system (e.g. VMS). One use of this feature is when a variable file name is to be renamed. For example:

            c1 rename metafile.dat plot1.tmp
            xc c1
            c1(25:25) 2
            xc c1

In the first case the file is renamed to "plot1.tmp", in the second case to "plot2.tmp". This can be useful when included in a loop where many files need to be renamed.

Back to List of Commands

(24) The macro is searched for in the following order :

(a) First, the current directory is searched.

(b) If the macro is not found in (a), then the sub-directory [.MCO] is searched.

If the directory name is explicitly specified with the macro name, then only that directory is searched.

Back to List of Commands

(27) If you want the same number of plots along both X- and Y- directions then the "PP #" form of the command can be used. In such cases # must be a perfect square. For example, "PP 1" means only one plot on the page, "PP 16" means a total of 16 plots (4 along X and 4 along Y).

For cases where the number of plots along X and Y have to be different, you must use "PP X #" and "PP Y #" separately.

Back to List of Commands

(28) The default number of plots per page varies depending on the type of plot and the number of stimulus points in the data set. For example, for the "GR PST" command the default is "PP 4" unless there are less than four stimulus points in the data set.

For "GR SP", the default is "PP 1".

Back to List of Commands

(29) The default number of grids along any axis varies with the type of plot. For most response area plots, the default is 10 along the X-axis and 4 along the Y-axis.

Note that the "NUM GR ..." command can be overridden by the "FTIC ..." and "TINC ..." commands.

Back to List of Commands

(30) The range of permissible values for number of digits after decimal point is 0 to 5.

Back to List of Commands

(31) The default number of digits after decimal point varies for different types of plots and also varies with the axes size.

Back to List of Commands

(34) The PSTs used to compute the spectrogram are by default binned with a 50 microsec bin width. You can change this with the "NB #" command.

Back to List of Commands

(35) The "HI BF @@@" command can be used to specify the binning frequency for cycle histograms and sync. coeff. computation. The "@@@" can be a constant, a variable name, or an algebraic expression containing both. The following are examples of valid "HI BF .." commands :


          HI BF 500
          HI BF FMOD
          HI BF FMOD#M-FMOD#S
          HI BF (FCARR-FMOD)*2

Back to List of Commands

(36) The "HI BFI #1 #2" command means that the first cycle histogram (for the current data set) will be binned at #1 Hz and then each subsequent one will be incremented by #2 Hz. For example, if "HI BFI 101 100" then the first histogram is binned at 101 Hz, the second at 201 Hz, the third at 301 Hz etc..

Back to List of Commands

(37) The "HI SH #" command is used to specify a shading pattern for histograms. The shading pattern is an integer number between 0 and 71. A pattern # of 0 means "no shading", and this can be specified as "HI SH 0", "HI UN SH" or "HI SH DEF", since by default histograms are unshaded. A pattern # of 1 means solid (black) histograms. This is specified as "HI SH 1" or "HI SH".

Shading patterns of 2 and greater result in different levels of gray-level shading and cross-hatching. It is not possible to describe them all here, but a sample of all available shading pattern codes can be seen by clicking here.

Back to List of Commands

(38) By default, the histograms include full bars.

(39) Sizes are specified in units of Inches, or whichever units are specified in the UNITS command.

Back to List of Commands

(40) The sizes of the symbols can be set separately for scatter plots. For example, with the "OU SP" command, if there were 3 separate lines (and symbol types), then the "SZ SYM #1 #2 #3" command could be used to set the sizes of the three sets of symbols independently. For example, "SZ SYM 0.1 0.15 0.2" would set the first symbol size to 0.1 inch, the second to 0.15 inch etc. Symbol sizes beyond the last specified are extended automatically. If in the last example there were actually five sets of symbols then the fourth and fifth would have the same size as the third (0.2 inch).

Back to List of Commands

(46) The default sizes of the various plot elements vary with many factors such as the type of plot, the number of plots per page etc.

Back to List of Commands


	(47) The "OU RGL .." commands plot the regularity functions 
(mean/std.dev.  or Coeff.  of Variation) as a function of time. By 
default, the program uses a 1.0 millisec bin width for the 
regularity analysis.  You can use "NB #" to change the bin width.

	(48) You can use a line weight of zero to suppress particular 
plot elements.  For example, "LW DATE 0" will suppress the date and 
time which are normally displayed in the lower right hand corner of 
plots.  The line weight is specified as an integer number 0,1,2...  
etc.  It's effect varies with the plotting device used.  For 
example, with the laser plotter, 1 will be a thin line and 3 will 
be a thick line, but on the tektronix terminal all lines weights 
appear the same.  On the pen plotter, the line weight command has 
no effect (you can ask for the pens with wider tips with the "COL 
..." commands).

	(49) When more than one line is being plotted (e.g.  with the 
"OU SP" command), you can set their line weights separately.  For 
example, if there are four lines with "GR SP", you can draw 
alternate ones only with "LW LIN 1 0 1 0".  The line weights are 
"extended", so if there were fifth, sixth etc.  lines after the 
above command they would all have line weights of zero.

	(57) Default line weights vary with many factors such as the 
type of plot, number of plots per page, number of bins etc.

	(58) "OU RGL CV" is the same as "OU RGL"

	(59) The default font number is 1.  The available font numbers 
are from 1 to 30.  The odd numbered fonts are shown in the figure 
at the end of these notes.  The even numbered fonts are simply 
italicized versions of the odd numbered fonts.

	(66) Upto 10 different percentages may be specified for 
computing Isorate curves.  The percentages may range between -100 
to +100.  If the percentage is positive, then the target rate is 
defined as "percent ABOVE spontaneous".  It is computed by 
estimating the spontaneous spike rate and the peak spike rate, 
taking their difference, multiplying the difference by the 
specified percentage, then adding the result to the spontaneous 
rate.  Thus 0 percent would mean exactly the spontaneous rate, and 
100 percent would mean the peak rate.

	If the percent is specified as a negative number, then it is 
interpreted as meaning "percent BELOW spontaneous", and is computed 
by estimating the spontaneous rate, multiplying it by the (absolute 
value of) specified percent (fraction), and subtracting the result 
from the spontaneous rate to arrive at the target rate. Thus -10 
would mean just slightly below spontaneous rate, and -100 percent 
would mean a target rate of zero.  The default percentages are 20, 
30 and 40.

	(67) The default value of the X-, Y- and Z-axis titles varies 
with the type of plot.
Back to List of Commands

(68) Color for particular plot elements is specified as an integer number starting with zero. This command has meaning only for those devices that support color (such as the pen plotter and the RAMTEK display). The meaning of any color code can change depending on the device used and other factors. For example, a code of 16 will select slot # 8 in the HP 7550A pen plotter carousel, which is normally a black pen with a wide tip, but if a yellow pen is placed in that slot then "COL GR 16" will set the grid color to yellow.

Back to List of Commands

(80) Units for the positioning commands are inches. The default for positioning commands is RELative position, and the X- position increases from left to right and Y-position increases from bottom to top. Thus, the command :

	 PX PLOT 1.5
will position the lower left corner of the plot axes 1.5 inches to the right of where it would have been positioned by default.

By contrast, when the ABSolute position is specified, the X and Y positions are measured relative to the upper left hand corner of the page/screen, and X increases from top to bottom and Y increases from left to right. Thus, the command :

	PX ABS PLOT 4.5
will position the lower left corner of the plot exactly 4.5 inches down from the top of the page. The position from the left of the page would not be affected by the "PX ABS .." command.

Back to List of Commands

(81) The RR command can be used to restrict the range of stimulus points included in subsequent analyses. By default, all stimulus points are included.

For example, if a Response Area was collected with Frequency varying from 100 Hz to 5000 Hz, and SPL from 0 to 90 dB, you can use the RR command to restrict subsequent analyses to (e.g.) only use 500 to 2000 Hz and 40 to 70 dB.

When the command RR is used without any qualifiers, it prompts the user to enter in the new range from the keyboard. The range can also be specified on the command line, e.g.

          RR X 500 2000
          RR Y 40 70

would achieve the desired affect in the above example.

The RR command is set to "RR DEF" after each successful "ID..", "DS..", "NX DS", or "SET DEF" command.

Back to List of Commands

(82) The optional increment (#3) with the RR command can be used to modify which stimulus points are included in subsequent analyses. For example:

          RR X 500 2000 200
would include only X-vars at steps of 200, and:
          RR SEQ 1 10 2
would include only every other stimulus point.

For the special case of RAG plots (OU RAG...), the increment (#3) is used to set the increment at which the grid is created in that dimension.

Back to List of Commands

(83) The "XV @@@" command can be used to specify which variable is plotted along the X-axis for certain plots. For example, in a Response Area data collection, if the X-var was FREQ and the Y-var as SPL, then by default the FREQ will vary along the X-axis of the "GR SP" plot. But if the "XV SPL" (or XV 2) command is given first, then SPL will vary along the X-axis.

Back to List of Commands

(84) If there are no more data sets in the file, or there is some other error, then control is transferred to record number # in the macro. Note that # may also be a statement label.

Back to List of Commands

(85) The ML ... command can be used to control the number of messages printed out by RAP. The following are the possible setting for ML

		FULL    All messages (this is the default)
		LONG    All messages except macro commands not echoed
		BRIEF   Only error messages displayed
		NONE    No messages of any type

The recommended setting when running in RAP in batch mode is "ML BRIEF". When running RAP in interactive mode, use "ML FULL" which is also the default.

Back to List of Commands

(86) Values for the following variables can be obtained with the GV command :

	NUMDS	: Total number of data sets in file
	NDSET	: Number of the current data set
        NSTIM	: No. of stimulus points in current data set
        NSTIMA  : No. of stimulus points actually included in recent analysis
        NUMV    : Number of RA variables
	XLOW	: Starting value for X-variable
	XHIGH	: Final value for X-variable
	XINC	: Increment for X-variable (or steps/octave if log steps)
	!XRANGE	: Range of X-variable
	NUMX	: No. of times X-variable was varied
	YLOW	: Starting value for Y-variable
	YHIGH	: Final value for Y-variable
	YINC	: Increment for Y-variable (or steps/octave if log steps)
	!YRANGE	: Range of Y-variable
	NUMY	: Number of times Y-variables was varied
	!ZLOW	: Starting value for Z-variable
	!ZHIGH	: Final value for Z-variable
	!ZINC	: Increment for Z-variable (or steps/octave if log steps)
	!ZRANGE	: Range of Z-variable
	NUMZ	: No. of times Z-variable was varied
	STMDUR	: Stimulus duration (millisecs) (*)
	DUR	: Stimulus duration (millisecs) (*)
	REPINT	: Repetition interval (millisecs) (*)
	NREPS	: Number of repetitions (*)
	NREP	: Same as NREPS (*)
	EXTYP	: Experiment type (char string)
	XNAME	: Name of X-variable (char string)
	YNAME	: Name of Y-variable (char string)
	ZNAME	: Name of Z-variable (char string)
	DMOD	: Depth of modulation (*)
	FMOD	: Fixed modulation frequency (*)
	FCARR	: Carrier frequency (Hz) (*)
	FREQ	: Fixed frequency (Hz) (*)
	SPL	: Fixed SPL (dB) (*)
	GWID	: General waveform ID (char string) (*)
	GWFILE	: General waveform File-name (char string) (*)
	UNITNUM	: Unit number of current data set
	METAFILE: Name of most recently created metafile (char)
	DSID	: Data set ID of current data set (char)
	FNAME	: Name of current data file (char)
	PHASE	: Carrier initial phase (0 to 1) (*)
	PHASM	: Modulation initial phase (0 to 1) (*)
	PHASEM	: Same as PHASM (*)
	XMIN	: X-minimum for most recent plot
	XMAX	: X-maximum for most recent plot
	YMIN	: Y-minimum for most recent plot
	YMAX	: Y-maximum for most recent plot
	FXDFRQ	: Fixed Difference Freq (Harris data only)
	FXSPL	: Fixed SPL for second tone (Harris data only)
	STATDS	: Data set # of most recently created STATPK data set
	DELAY	: Initial delay of Master DSS (*)
	VALMAX	: Largest value from most recent RA plot
	VALMIN	: Minimum value from most recent RA plot
	XVMAX	: Value of X-var at VALMAX from RA plot
	XVMIN	: Value of X-var at VALMIN from RA plot
	YVMAX	: Value of Y-var at VALMAX from RA plot
	YVMIN	: Value of Y-var at VALMIN from RA plot
	ZVMAX	: Value of Z-var at VALMAX from RA plot
	ZVMIN	: Value of Z-var at VALMIN from RA plot
	SYNCMAX	: Max. Sync. Coeff. from most recent CH plot
	RYMAX	: Max. Rayleigh Coeff. from most recent CH plot
	RYMIN	: Min. Rayleigh Coeff. from most recent CH plot
	ICD	: Inter click delay-master DSS(click pair expt)
	ITD1	: Inter first click delay (click pair expt)
	ITD2	: Inter second click delay (click pair expt)
	ATTN	: Attenuator setting (dB) (*)
	TBASE	: UET time base (microsecs)
        FRLOW   : Low Frequency (Hz)
        FRHIGH  : High Frequency (Hz)
        PHASEMAX: Max. phase for most recent cycle histogram
        PHASEMIN: Min. phase for most recent cycle histogram
        GPGWI1  : First Waveform ID from Gewab-pair expt. (char) (*)
        GPGWI2  : Second Waveform ID from Gewab-pair expt. (char) (*)
        NSPKMAX : Max. number of spikes from most recent PSTs.
        AVRGLMAX: Max. average latency from most recent PSTs.
        STDVLMAX: Max. std. dev. of latency from recent PSTs.
        PHASLSB : Phase of lower sideband for computed-AM
        PHASUSB : Phase of upper sideband for computed-AM
        THQ10   : Estimated 10 dB Q-factor from Tuning curve data
        THQ20   : Estimated 20 dB Q-factor from Tuning curve data
        THBW10  : Estimated 10 dB bandwidth from Tuning curve data
        THBW20  : Estimated 10 dB bandwidth from Tuning curve data
        GWESPL  : Effective SPL computation flag (0 or 1)
        FFDC    : DC term from most recent FFT computation
        NOTYPE  : Notch Type (for SYN notch stimulus) (LIN/EXP/POON) (char)(*)
        NOTCF   : Notch CF in Hz (for SYN notch stimulus) (*)
        NOTBW   : Notch 10db Bandwidth in Hz (for SYN notch stimulus) (*)
        NOTDEP  : Notch depth in dB (for SYN notch stimulus) (*)
        THSPONSD: Standard Deviation of Spon. Activity Count for TH data
        ESPON   : Estimated Spontaneous Rate or Count after "OU SP"
        BINW    : Bin-width of most recently computed histogram
        NUMXVAR : Number of X-var values in most recent RA computation
        NUMYVAR : Number of Y-var values in most recent RA computation
        RASDV   : Std. devs from most recent RA computation (array)(197)
        FMRISE  : Rise time for FM (millisecs) (*) (198)
        FMFALL  : Rise time for FM (millisecs) (*) (198)
        FMDWELL : Rise time for FM (millisecs) (*) (198)
        SLOC C1 C2 : Location of sub-string C1 within C2 (201)
        VVAL    : RA-variable values from most recent comp. (array) (203)
        PKLAT   : Peak PST latencies from most recent comp. (array) (209)
	RTIME	: Stimulus envelope Rise time (millisecs) (*)
	FTIME	: Stimulus envelope Fall time (millisecs) (*)
        AWLO    : Low analysis window from most recent comp. (millisecs) (211)
        AWHI    : High analysis window from most recent comp. (millisecs) (211)
        FUNDFH  : Fundamental Freq from most recent FFA or FFP comp (Hz)
        FFH     : Spectrum from most recent FFA or FFP comp (array) (216)
        REGR A1 A2 : Linear Regression of two arrays (array) (223)
        XSTEP   : X-increment used for most recent gridding analyses
        YSTEP   : X-increment used for most recent gridding analyses
        ZSTEP   : X-increment used for most recent gridding analyses
	GWSINC	: GW step-increment for unfrozen playback (no. of points) (*)
        GWUNF   : GW stimulus "unfrozen" flag (if=1 then waveform was Unfrozen) (*)
        ITRATE  : ITD rate for shifted-GW stimulus (microsecs/sec) (*)
        SGITD1  : Shifted-GW ITD1 for shifted-GW stimulus (microsecs) (*)
        SGITD2  : Shifted-GW ITD2 for shifted-GW stimulus (microsecs) (*)
        ISMEAN  : Computed Mean Inter-spike interval (millisecs) (array) (228)
        ISDEV   : Standard Deviation of inter-spk intervals (millisecs) (array) (228)
        ISKEW   : Skewness of Interspike intervals (array) (228)
        ISKURT  : Kurtosis of Interspike intervals (array) (228)
        ISCV    : Coeff. of Variation of Interspike intervals (array) (228)
        SSRATE  : Steady State Spike rate (spikes/sec) (array) (229)
        PNDMN   : Means from most recent PND comp. (array) (133)
        PNDSD   : Std. Devs. from most recent PND comp. (array) (133)
        HIST    : Most recently computed Histogram (array) (231)
        NSPHIS  : Number of spikes in most recent Histograms (array) (234)
        PKSSR   : Peak to Steady State Spike ratio (array) (229)
        SPKT    : Spike Times for any trial (array) (238)
        NSPKT   : Number of Spike Times for any trial(238)
        GW      : General Waveform (time domain)(array)(244)
        GWLEN   : General Waveform length (244)
        GWINT   : General Waveform interval (microsecs) (244)
        ACOL #1 #2 #3 : Array of ascending numbers (array) (245)
        HIST    : Most recent histogram (array) (247)
        FSREP   : Number of trials with at least N spikes (array) (252)
        FDIFF   : Difference Frequency (Hz) (254)
        MDSS    : Master DSS number
        DSS1    : DSS-1 use flag (0 or 1) (255)
        DSS2    : DSS-2 use flag (0 or 1) (255)
        ASYNC A# : Synch. Coeff. from Array (257)
        MEDD A1 [V2 V3 ...] : Median of a Distribution (258)
        FDIFF   : Difference Frequency (mostly for SER data).
        XVLL    : Log or Linear increment for X-var (1=linear, 2=log)
        YVLL    : Log or Linear increment for Y-var (1=linear, 2=log)
        YEAR    : Year in which current data set collected (4 digits)
        BPFCF   : Filter CF in Hz (for bandpass or Klatt filter) (*)
        BPFBW   : Filter CF in Hz or Octaves(for bandpass or Klatt filter) (*)
        FILTYP  : Stimulus Filter Type (e.g. KLATT or NONE) (char)(*)
        RATAB   : Computed RA values (e.g. rate) from most recent plot (array)
        XVAR    : Table of X-var values from most recent plot (array)
        YVAR    : Table of Y-var values from most recent plot (array)
        FMSWTIM : FM sweep time (in seconds)
        FMCYC   : Number of FM sweep cycles completed
        FMBIN   : Number of Bins in FM sweep histogram
        FMHIS   : FM sweep histogram (array)

Most variables are returned as numeric (floating point) values except for those which are marked as "char string" above.

In cases where two tones were presented (i.e. a Two DSS experiment) you can specify which DSS to get the values for by appending either #M (for Master DSS) or #S (for Slave DSS) to some of the above variable names. For example :

		GV V1 SPL
		GV V1 SPL#M
		GV V1 SPL#S

In the first two commands, the value of SPL for the Master DSS will be returned, while in the third command the value for the Slave DSS will be returned.

You can also ask for the value for a particular DSS # by appending #1 (for DSS-1) or #2 (for DSS-2) to the variable name.

Only certain variables can be extended in this way. They are identified with a (*) after their description above.

Back to List of Commands

(87) The file must already exist on disc and contain data suitable for RAP analysis. The default extension of .DAT may be omitted. The maximum length of a data file name is 80 characters.

Back to List of Commands

(89) Either spike rates or spike counts are output as a function of the variable specified with the XV command.

Optionally, the "mean no. of spikes per repetition" can be plotted by using the "MEAN" option. In this case, the standard deviation or standard error bars are also displayed for each point. The error bars can be omitted by setting their line weight to zero with the "LW SDV #" command.

The default for the "OU SP" command is spike rates.

(90) The "SPF FF" command is used to force subsequent spool file contents to go on a new page when the contents are finally printed with the "PR SPF" command.

Back to List of Commands

(91) The following statistics can be displayed/printed at present for each stimulus point within any data set :


	NUMSPK	: No. of spikes within analysis window
	SPKRAT	: Spike rate within analysis window
	PKRATE	: Peak spike rate using a 100 microsec window
	SSRATE	: Steady state spike rate, using last x% of analysis. window
	PK/SSR	: Peak rate divided by steady state rate
	SYNC	: Sync. coeff. computed using "HI BF ..."
	PHASE	: Phase computed for "HI BF .." (fraction of cycle)
	RYCOFF	: Rayleigh coeff. computed from SYNC and NUMSPK
	FSREP	: No. of repetitions with at least one spike
	FSLAT	: Mean first spike latency in millisecs
	SDLAT	: Standard Dev. of first spike latency (msecs)
	PKLAT	: Latency computed using x% to PST peak
	ISMEAN	: Mean interspk interval from ISI histo (msecs)
	ISDEV	: Std. Dev. from ISI histogram (msecs)
	ISKEW	: Skewness of ISI histogram
	ISKURT	: Kurtosis of ISI histogram
	ISCV	: ISDEV/ISMEAN for ISI histograms
        SDRAT   : Std. Dev. of spike rate for different repetitions
        MDLAT   : Median First-Spike Latency (msecs)

For more details of how the above are computed, click here.

Back to List of Commands

(92) The default for the "OU SPF" command is "DEL", i.e. the spool file is deleted from disc after printing. The only permissible output device is the printer, thus "PR SPF ..." is the only valid option.

Back to List of Commands

(93) The default number of bins varies depending on the analyses. For PST histograms, the default no. of bins is 100. For cycle histograms, the default is 64 bins, etc..

(94) The trial (or repetition) numbers to included in the analyses may be specified with the TR ... command. Upto 5 pairs of trial numbers may be specified. For example :

		TR 1 100
		TR 1 5 11 15 21 25

In the first example, trial numbers 1 to 100 will be included. In the second example, trials 1 to 5, 11 to 15 and 21 to 25 will be included and all others will be excluded. The program does an automatic "TR DEF" whenever an "ID ..." or "DS .." command is given.

Back to List of Commands

(95) By default, all trials are included in the analyses.

Back to List of Commands

(96) The Hazard Function of IS histograms is computed as follows:

Each bin of the IS (Interspike Interval) histogram is divided by the sum of that bin plus all subsequent bins. The resulting function is plotted as a line plot that shows probability (of discharge) vs. Time.

Back to List of Commands

(97) @@@@3 can be any valid command, including another IF.. command. Examples of valid IF commands are :

		IF V1 GE 35 GO END
		IF C1 EQ CALB NX DS
		IF V1 LE 44.5 IF V1 GE 10.25 PL PST

Back to List of Commands

(98) Upto a maximum of fifty metafiles can be combined with a single "OU COMB ..." command.

If the SAVE option is specified then the metafiles specified in @@1 @@2 etc. will be saved, otherwise they will be deleted automatically after the combined plot has been output.

The metafile names can be specified either as literal strings or as variable names. If files are specified as variable names, then a "range" can be specified using the syntax "C#1 TO C#2" (#2 must be greater than #1). Thus the following commands are all valid :

		PL COMB C1 C2 C3
		GR COMB SAVE PLT100.TMP PLT105.TMP C1
                PL COMB C5 TO C10
                PL COMB CV1 TO CV2

The "OU COMB .." command can be used to combine any combination of RAP plots on one page. The following example shows how PST and ISI histograms can be plotted on the same page :

		:
		MF PST
		GV C1 METAFILE
		:
		MF ISI
		GV C2 METAFILE
		PL COMB C1 C2
		:

If "MF COMB ..." is used (i.e. output to metafile) then the name of the resultant metafile is always METAFILE.DAT

Back to List of Commands

(100) The "SET DEF" will set all parameters except data file name, data set ID, STATPK file name, and message level back to their default (initial) values. The "SET DEF" command also does not change any of the user defined variables (V#, C#, A#) nor does it change the dimensioning of user defined arrays.

Back to List of Commands

(101) The user must specify SAVE with the "OU MF.." command if the metafile is to be saved, otherwise the metafile specified in @@@@ is automatically deleted.

If the metafile name [@@@@] is not specified then the program will assume METAFILE.DAT.

Back to List of Commands

(102) Line styles are specified as integer numbers starting with zero. The resulting line style varies somewhat depending on the device used for output, but a line style of zero causes a solid line to be drawn on all devices.

For the hardcopy devices the line styles are interpreted as follows:

	Code		LN03			HP7550
	----		----			------
	0		Solid			Solid
	1		Dashed			Long dash, two short dashes
	2		Dotted			Long dash, one short dash
	3		Dashed, dotted		Long dash, one dot
	4		Long dashed		Long dashed
	5					Medium dashed
	6					Dotted
	7					Dots at coordinates
	8					Dotted
	9					Medium dashed
	10					Long dashed
	11					Long dash, one dot
	12					Long dash, one short dash
	13					Long dash, two short dashes
The default style for plotted lines is 0, for grids it is 2.

Back to List of Commands

(103) Line styles of upto 40 lines can be specified with the "STYLE LI .." command. The lines are those connecting data points in graphs such as Spike rates, Sync. coeff., phase etc. The last line style is extended to any lines beyond the number specified. For example, if "STY LI 1 1 0" is used, then the first two lines will be dashed, and the third, fourth and all subsequent lines will will be solid.

To set all lines to solid, you can use either "STY LI DEF" or "STY LI 0".

Back to List of Commands

(105) The "HI YV RATE/COUNT" command is used only for PST or AC histograms to set the Y-axis to either Spike Rate or Spike Count. It also affects the Y-axis for any derived plot (e.g. "OU FFA PST").

Back to List of Commands

(106) Character strings and variable values may be inter-mixed in user specified Messages, Captions and Titles. For example :

		:
		GV V1 SPL
		GV V2 FREQ
		GV C1 EXTYP
		NUM MS 1
		SET MS 1 "Extype=" C1 "freq=" V2 "Hz    SPL=" V1 "dB"
		:

Note the use of double quotes to delimit literal strings.

Back to List of Commands


	(107) The maximum number of characters in a STATPK file name 
is 40.  The command word OLD is optional and may be omitted.  The 
STATPK file must have been created earlier either by RAP or by 
STATPK.

	(108) If you do not specify the name of the STATPK file to be 
created then the program assigns a default name based on time of 
day.  If you do not specify the number of directory entries to be 
allocated in the newly created STATPK file then the program uses a 
default value of 159.

	(109) The default separator between columns of print output is 
a SPACE.

	(110) When the Null device is selected the program goes 
through the requested analysis but all output is discarded.  This 
is useful in some cases because the results of the analysis can be 
obtained by subsequent GV commands.  For example :

		:
		AUTO AX
		NL PST
		GV V1 YMAX
		YM V1
		PL PST

	In this example, the PST plots produced by the "PL PST" 
command will be autoscaled and each plot will have the same Y-
scale.

	(110) The default symbol type for JIH plots is a filled 
circle.  You can change the symbol type with the "SYM DOT #" 
command.  The default size of symbols with the JIH plot is 0.02 
inch.  You can change it with the "SZ DOT #" command.

(112) The specified time (in milliseconds) is subtracted from each spike time before any analysis or window is applied to it. This command should be used sparingly in special cases (e.g. to correct for a fixed delay in the stimulus delivery). Note that the analysis window is applied after subtraction. The default is no (zero) time subtracted.

This constant is reset to zero after every ID or DS command (or NX DS).

Back to Top


	(113) The default smoothing for latency computation is 3.

	(114) The default smoothing for plotted lines is 1 (no 
smoothing), except for the "OU RGL .." output, for which the 
default smoothing is 3. Points excluded due to "masking" (e.g. RY MASK..)
are not included during smoothing.

	(115) The smoothing factor must be an odd integer number 
between 1 and 31 (e.g.  1,3,5,7...).  The larger this number, the 
more smooth the results.  A smoothing factor of 1 is the same as 
"no smoothing".

	(116) The default smoothing for histograms is 1 (no 
smoothing).

Back to List of Commands

(118) User defined variable names can be upto 8 characters long, and are case in-sensitive.

Back to List of Commands

(120) The "SM IR #" command specifies smoothing which is applied to the response area which in turn is used to compute the isorate curves. The final isorate curves are not smoothed by this command (that can be done independently with the SM LIN .. command. The default for the "SM IR ..." command is 1 (no smoothing).

Back to List of Commands

(121) The percent to peak latency is a value between 0 and 100 which determines where the threshold will be set for computing the peak latency which is displayed as the "PKLAT" column in the STAT table. The default is 20 percent.

Back to List of Commands

(122) The spectrogram resolution sets the separation between successive symbols along the X (time) axis in millisecs. The default for "SET SPEC RES .." is 1.5 millisecs.

Back to List of Commands

(123) The spectrogram window sets the width (in millisecs) for the sliding window for which each spectrum is computed. The default width for this window is 12.8 millisecs. The wider this window, the more the resolution along the Y (freq) axis, i.e. the symbols along the Freq axis will be closer together.

Back to List of Commands

	(124) The symbol number is an integer number between 0 and 190 
used to specify the symbol plotted.  The first 13 symbol codes can
be described as follows :

To see all the symbols, click here

		Symbol #		Description
		--------		-----------
		    0			Asterisk
		    1  			Triangle (hollow)
		    2  			Square (hollow)
		    3			Circle (hollow)
		    4			Diamond (hollow)
		    5 			X
		    6			Square with X through middle
		    7 			Number sign (#)
		    8			Inverted triangle (hollow)
		    9 			Plus sign (+)
		   10 			Circle (filled)
		   11			Square (filled)
		   12			Triangle (filled)
		   13 			Inverted triangle (filled)

	(125) The default symbol for latency dot displays is a 
vertical bar.

	(126) The default symbol for spectrogram plots is an asterisk.

(128) The plotter queue determines which plotter the plots will be sent to in response to a "PL .." command or when "Y" is typed in response to the "Hardcopy (Y/N) ?" query. The main application of the "SET QUEUE .." command is in a macro where many "PL .." commands are to be given. Some examples of plotter queue names are LASER1, LASER2 and LASER3. Note that not all queues are available on all machines. Consult your local system manager for details, or use the default queue.

Back to List of Commands

(129) The default plotter queue varies with the computer where you are logged in. For example, for node MVF, the default queue is LASER8, while for MVC it is LASER1.

Back to List of Commands

(130) This command sets the time window (in millisecs) over which the averages displayed with the regularity analysis are computed. The default window is the entire time scale (X-axis) of the plots.

Back to List of Commands

(131) Page Captions (upto 6 per plot) are displayed in the upper right portion of plots by default. To enable display of Page Captions you also must specify "NUM PGCAP @" where @ is the number of page captions. By default, there is a box around page captions. You can suppress the box with "LW PGBC 0" command.

Back to List of Commands

(132) The "OU LAT [MEAN/SD]" command plots either the Mean Nth spike latency or the Std. Deviation of the Nth spike latency vs. one of the RA variables. The default is 1st spike latency, but you can specify which spike to compute the latency for by using the "NUM SPIKE #" command, where # is the spike number. "OU LAT" is the same as "OU LAT MEAN".

The default analysis window for latency computation is the stimulus duration of the master DSS.

Back to List of Commands

(133) The Pulse Number Distribution is a line graph which shows the number of repetitions that had a particular number of spikes within the specified analysis window. In effect, it is a probability distribution of the number of spikes (pulses). The X- axis of the plot is "Number of Spikes" and the Y-axis is "Number of Repetitions".

If the NORM option is specified then the Y-axis is normalized to "Fraction of Repetitions", and the sum of all the bins is 1.

Back to List of Commands

(134) The "SET YX ..." command is used to specify which plot axis (left or right) is used for displaying the variable along the Y-axis. The default is "left axis".

Back to List of Commands

(135) The Response Area Grid Map shows the specified parameter as a function of two RA variables. The values of the parameter (e.g. Spike Count) are represented by symbols whose size is proportional to the value of the parameter. In the special case Latency RAG plots, the symbol size is inversely proportional to the value of latency (i.e. smaller latencies are shown as a larger symbol).

Back to List of Commands

	(136) The "LW RAG ..." command can be used to set the line 
weights of data and "nodata" symbols separately.

	(137) The "SZ RAG ..." command can be used to set the range of 
sizes for RAG symbols by specifying the MAX and MIN symbol sizes.  
Values in-between are scaled accordingly.  The size of "nodata" 
symbols can be set independently.

	(138) "Nodata" symbols are plotted at those points where a 
stimulus was presented but there was no response (i.e.  no spikes).  
Stimulus points where no stimulus was presented are left blank on 
RAG plots.

	(139) The symbol types displayed on RAG plots can be modified 
with the "SYM RAG ..." commands.  If the symbol type is specified 
as NUM then the actual numeric value is displayed instead of a 
symbol.  The default symbol for RAG DATA is 10 (filled circle) and 
for RAG NODATA it is 3 (hollow circle).

	(140) The symbol types used with Response Area plots can be 
modified with the "SYM RA ...." command.

	(141) You can specify the absolute spike rates to be used for 
isorate curve computation.  The default rates are 20, 50 and 80.

	(142) Isorate levels can also be specified as absolute spike 
counts using the "SET IR COUNT ..." command.

Back to List of Commands

(143) These commands are used for multi-unit analysis. For further details, please refer to Appendix-A.

Back to List of Commands

(144) If a Rayleigh Coefficient mask is specified, then SYNC and PHASE values for which the RY coeff. is greater than the specified mask are left out of subsequent plots. Only SYNC and PHASE computation is affected by the "MASK RY .." command. The default is "MASK RY NONE", i.e. no masking.

Values that do not meet the masking criteria can still be displayed optionally as dotted lines by using the "LW MLI ..." command.

Back to List of Commands

	(145) The "OU SPKT" command will list a table of recorded 
spike times in units of milliseconds on the specified device.  For 
example, "DI SPKT" will display on the terminal screen while "SO 
SPKT" will write the table to a and ASCII spool file.

	Only times within the analysis window are listed.

Back to List of Commands

(146) The "OU MS #" command can be used to either display a message on the screen or write it to and ASCII spool file for later use.

For example, the following macro will write out the values of SYNCMAX and RYMIN for each data set into a file :

				:
		NEXT:	NX DS ERR=STOP
				NL CH
				GV V1 SYNCMAX
				GV V2 RYMIN
				SET MS 1 V1 " " V2
				SO MS 1
				GO NEXT
		STOP:	EXIT
				:

Back to List of Commands

	(147) The "V#1 @ V#2" can be used to do simple arithmetic  
manipulations on variables.  For example, "V1 + V2" will result in  
the value of V1 getting replaced by the sam of V1 and V2.  V2 will  
remain unchanged.

	There must be a space on each side of the operator (+,-,* or 
/), and V2 can be a numeric constant ad well as a variable.  For 
example, "V1 / 2.5" will cause V1 to be replaced by V1 divided by 
2.5.

	(148) The "V#1 GCF V#2" command replaces V#1 by the Greatest 
Common Factor between V#1 and V#2.  Both V#1 and V#2 must be 
positive integer values.  The Greatest Common Factor is the largest 
integer that will exactly divide both V#1 and V#2.  For example, 
the GCF of 77 and 88 is 11.  This command can be used to compute 
the fundamental frequency of two harmonics.

Back to List of Commands

(149) The "OU @@@ 3D" commands can be used to plot the specified parameter as a 3-dimensional surface plot vs. 2 variables simultaneously. For example, "PL SP 3D" plots the spike rate as a function of (typically) frequency and SPL. Click here to see sample.

The 3D surface is drawn as a hidden line mesh, and any missing data points are filled in by interpolation and smoothing.

The parameter (e.g. SPIKE rate) is plotted along the Y-axis, the X-var (e.g. FREQ) is plotted along the X-axis, and the Y-var (e.g. SPL) along the Z-axis.

You can control the appearance of the plot by using the viewing angle (VAX... VAY...) and viewing distance (VDIS...) commands.

You can also "reverse" the viewpoint by interchanging the max and min values along any axis. For example, if a 3D graph has SPL along the Z-axis going from 10 to 80 dB, you can reverse the viewpoint by setting ZMIN to 80 and ZMAX to 10.

Back to List of Commands

	(150) The "VAX..." and "VAY..." commands can change the 
viewing angle and rotate the plot along the X- or Y-axis.  The 
viewing angle is specified in degrees.  The default viewing angle 
is VAX -30 and VAY -45.

	At present, VAY can only be varied between 0 and -90 degrees.

Back to List of Commands

(151) The "viewing distance" is expressed in inches. The default viewing distance is 25 inches.

Back to List of Commands

(152) Length of tic marks can be specified independent of the axis size. If a negative tic size is specified then the tic marks are drawn "inwards".

Back to List of Commands


	(153) The "SET RGL MINSPK ..." commands allows you specify the 
minimum number of intervals that must be present in a particular 
bin before it is included in the regularity analysis.

	The default number is 4.

	(154) "Masked" line and symbol refer to those portions of 
response area plots that have not met the criteria set by the "MASK 
RY ..." command.  The default masked line weight is 1 and the 
default line style is 2.

	(155) You can choose between the display of standard error or 
standard deviation bars on some plots (e.g.  GR SP MEAN) by using 
the "LW SDV..." and "LW ERR..." commands.

	The default line weight for error bars is 1 and for std. dev.  
bars is 0 (i.e.  error bars are displayed).  To display std. dev.  
bars instead, use "LW SDV 1" and "LW ERR 0" (if both are 1 then 
error bars only are displayed).

	(156) The Cycle Histogram Dot display plots the spike times as 
dots folded over a single cycle of a user specified binning 
frequency.  Thus, the X-axis is time equal to a single cycle of the 
binning freq., and the Y-axis is time expressed as number of cycles 
of the binning freq.  and extending out to the stimulus duration by 
default.

	Binning freq.  may be specified in the same way as for a cycle 
histogram (i.e.  with "HI BF ...").

	The symbols used to show each spike (dot) can be specified 
with the "SYM DOT ..." command.

	(157) The "CORR ..." command is used to "correct" certain data 
collected on nodes MVA and FELIX before Jan. 15 1991.  This 
correction is necessary because of a timing error in the UET on 
those machines.  For further details on whether this correction is 
necessary please consult the author.

	The default is "CORR NONE".

Back to List of Commands

(158) You can selectively suppress (or enable) columns in the statistics table by using the "LW LI #1 #2 ... #n" command. #1 refers to the line weight of the first column, #2 to the second column, and so on. A line weight of zero suppresses that column.

Back to List of Commands

(159) The "baseline" value specified with "SET RAG BASE #" is subtracted from each value on RAG plots before plotting.

The default baseline is zero.

Back to List of Commands

(160) The format specified with the "set format # (@@..@@)" command must be a legal FORTRAN format, while # must be an integer value between 1 and 10. This format may then be used in subsequent READ/WRITE commands.

The format spec must include the parentheses.

Back to List of Commands

(161)You can specify an integer format when reading in V# variables, but if you do that then all the V#'s in a particular format must be read in as type integer. For example :

                 (A10,F6.2,F6.2)
                 (A10,2F6.2)
   and           (A10,I6,I6)             are all legal, 
   but :         (A10,F6.2,I6)           is not.

(162) Besides the the header line that appears with RA plots, the "LW TABH.." command also controls the headings that appear with tables created by "OU STAT...".

Back to Top

(163) The "CORR CALP #" is command is used to enable or disable correction of computed phase values using the stored acoustic phone calibration table. It is also used to specify which phone (DSS) number should be used for the correction. The command "CORR CALP 1" will correct computed phase using the Phone-1 calibration table, and "CORR CALP 2" will correct using the Phone-2 calibration table. "CORR CALP 0" will disable phase correction, which is also the default.

Note that you must also specify the DSID of the calibration tables by using the commands "CID1 @@@@" and/or "CID2 @@@@". For example:

                 :
                 CORR CALP 1
                 CID1 rs-1
                 PL CP
                 CORR CALP 0
                 PL CP
                 :

In the above example, the first Cumulated Phase plot will be corrected using the acoustic calibration in data set "RS-1", while the second plot will be uncorrected.

The calibration data sets are assumed to be in the same file as the current data set being analyzed.
Back to Top

(164) The "CID1 @@@" and "CID2 @@@" commands are used to specify the data set ID's of the acoustic calibrations for phone-1 (DSS-1) and phone-2 (DSS-2) respectively. The format of the calibration data is assumed to be as recorded by program NEUCAL. They are normally used in conjunction with one of the "CORR ...." commands. The calibration data sets are assumed to be in the same file as the current data set being analyzed.
Back to Top

(165) The "CORR MCP 1" command is used to enable correction of computed phase data with the phase from mechanical (laser) experiments. "CORR MCP 0" means do not correct for mechanical phase, which is also the default. The "CORR MCP YES" command has the result as "CORR MCP 1", and the "CORR MCP NO" and "CORR MCP DEF" are the same as "CORR MCP 0".
Back to Top

(166) The "MCF @@@" command is used to specify the name of the file that contains the Mechanical Calibration recorded normally from the laser expts. of Rhode and Cooper. This should be an ascii (text) file, and typically may contain data for more than one calibration.
Back to Top

(167) The "MAG..." command is used to specify the overall magnification of a plot. All elements of the plot (axes, titles etc.) are magnified by the same ratio. Thus, with "MAG 0.5" the plot will be one-fourth as big (i.e. half as big in each of the X- and Y-directions). Magnification along X- and Y-directions can be specified independently by using "MAG X #" and "MAG Y #". If the mags. for X and Y are different the plot will be distorted.

If # < 1 the plot is shrunk relative to normal, if # > 1 then it is expanded rel. to normal.
Back to Top

(168) The "MIN IS #" command is used to exclude spikes which are too close to each other. Thus if "MIN IS 2" is used, and there are two spikes within 1 millisec of each other, then the second of those spikes is not included in the analysis. The default minimum is zero.

The "MIN IS #" criterion is applied to all subsequent analyses, unless cancelled by another "MIN IS.." command, by a "SET DEF" command, or by exiting RAP.
Back to Top

(169) Each Character Variable can hold a string of upto 200 characters. A max of 999 character variables are possible (C1, C2, .... C999).
Back to Top

(170) The "OU HIS..." command is used to graph a histogram from data contained in an array variable (e.g. A1, A2 etc.). The array variable(s) containing the data are specified with an "SPV X A#1 A#2...." command. It is not necessary to specify a Y-variable.

If "OU HIS" is used, then the array is assumed to contain raw values, which are first binned before graphing. The bin-width of the histogram is computed from values for Xmin, Xmax and NBIN.

If "OU HIS BC" is used, then the array is assumed to contain binned values, i.e. each value in A# is the height of a bin. In this case the user must specify values for XMIN, XMAX and NBIN. Autoscaling of the X-axis is not possible with "OU HIS BC".
Back to Top

(171) If "ECHO ON" is specified, then any command entered from the keyboard, or from a command file, is echoed back either to the terminal screen or to the batch log file. This is useful mostly when running RAP from command files, where error messages may need to matched with the command that caused them. The default is "ECHO OFF".

Back to List of Commands

(172) This command is used to specify whether all stimulus points are to be included in the analysis after sorting has been enabled with "SET XVSORT..." or "SET YVSORT...". If "SET SORT ALL" is specified, then all stimulus points are included. If "SET SORT UNIQ" is specified, then if any repeat occrrences of any stimulus point are found, only the last of these repeat occrrences is included.

By default, all occurrences are included.

Back to List of Commands

(173) Plots can be oriented in a horizontal (LANDscape) or vertical (PORTrait) format. The DEFault for most plots is landscape. Note that in some cases the plot sizes may change when going between the two orientations.

Back to List of Commands

(174) The "SZ TABSYM..." command is used to set the sizes of symbols that appear with the table with certain RA plots (such as "OU SP", "OU SYN" etc.). If the size is set to SYM, then the size of the table symbols is set equal to the size of the corresponding plot symbols (set with the "SZ SYM..." command). If the size is set to DEF, then the table symbols are the same size as the table characters (set with the "SZ TAB ..." command). If the size is to a numeric value (#), then that absolute size is used.

Back to List of Commands

(175) The "OPF # @@@@@" is used to open the filename specified in @@@@ for both read and write access. The number # is assigned to this file, and is used in subsequent READ and WRITE commands. For example:

          OPF 3 TEMP.TXT
          READ(1,3) V1 V2 V3

The file must already exist.

Back to List of Commands

(176) The "BSFILE #" command does a "Backspace" of one record on the user file number # which should have been earlier opened with a "OPFILE #" command.

A typical use of this command is to read in MORE than 5 variables from a user file record. For example, we could use :

             SET FORMAT 5 (A8,4I8)
             SET FORMAT 6 (40X,2I8)
             OPFILE 1 TEMP.TXT
             READ(1,5) C1 V1 V2 V3 V4
             BSFILE 1
             READ(1,6) V5 V6

to read 7 variables from a single record. Note the use of the two different formats. In "BSF #", # is the file number and not the number of records.

Back to List of Commands

(177) The "DIM A#(#)" command is used to dimension (create) a single-dimensioned array, or vector. For example, "DIM A1(100)" creates an array named A1 capable of holding 100 single precision numbers.

The array is referenced by its name (e.g. A1,A2... etc.) and it's elements may be referenced by supplying an index number (e.g. A1(4) is the fourth element of array A1). Upto 99 arrays may be used in a single run, named A1,A2...,A99.

In some cases an array may be created dynamically, as in the following example:

          GR SP
          GV A3 RATAB
In the above example, the array A3 is created automatically by the "GV..." command of minimum size needed to hold the Response Area Table from the most recent RA-plot (the "GR SP" command). No prior "DIM ..." command is necessary. If a "DIM A3..." had been issued earlier, then array A3 will not be resized by the "GV..." command. For this reason it is important that A3 be large enough if created before the "GV...".

The sum of of the sizes of all vector arrays should not exceed 260,000 in a single RAP session.

Back to List of Commands

(178) The "SET CP LAG/LEAD/DEF" command is used to set the direction of the cumulated phase. By default, the cumulated (unwrapped) phase is expressed as a phase "lag", i.e. a larger positive value means a larger phase lag. If the "SET CP LEAD" command is issued then the sign is reversed, i.e. a larger positive value means a larger phase "lead", or a smaller phase "lag". At present "SET CP DEF" is the same as "SET CP LAG".

Back to List of Commands

(179) The "SET SPEC SCALE @@@@" command is used to specify the scaling for the symbol sizes with a spectrogram or IAC (Interval Autocorrelogram) plot. Valid values for @@@@ are: LINEAR, LOG, DB, AREA or DEFAULT.

LINEAR means that the (linear) size of the symbols drawn is linearly proportional to the Z-value (amplitude). AREA means the area of the symbols is proportional to the Z-value. LOG means the (linear) size of the symbols is proportional to the log of the Z-values.

POW means that the amplitudes are raised to the specified power before plotting. For example,

          SET SPEC SCALE POWER 1.5
          SET SPEC SCALE POWER 2

The first example sets the power to 1.5, and the second to 2.0. Any positive real value can be specified for the power. The POWER scale has the effect of emphasizing peaks when POW > 1.0 and of de-emphasizing peaks when POW < 1.0. Note that "SET SPEC SCALE LIN" and "SET SPEC SCALE POWER 1" produce identical results.

Click on the following links to see the effects of using different values of POWER scale on a waterfall spectrogram plot with the same data:

POWER 1.0
POWER 2.0
POWER 3.0
POWER 4.0

For Grid format plots, DEF is same as LOG, and for Waterfall format plots, DEF is same as "POWER 2". DB is same as LOG.

Back to List of Commands

(180) The "SET LTRAN X/Y/Z #" command is used to specify a transformation for labels along the X-, Y- or Z-axis. The transformation is specified as numeric code, with 0 meaning "no transformation", which is the same as "SET TRAN X/Y/Z DEF".

At present, the following codes are available:

       0     No transformation
       1     Convert "barks" to Frequency

Note that only the plotted label values are transformed, the rest of the plot is not changed in any way.

Back to List of Commands

(181) Symbols over a particular X, Y or Z-range of a plot can be "highlighted" by using a different symbol code over that range. This is done with the "SHIGH @@ #1 #2" command, where @@ is either XR, YR or ZR (for X, Y or Z-range), and #1, #2 is the range to be highlighted (in plot units).

The "SHIGH @@ DEF" command disables highlighting in the specified direction.

The symbol type (code) used for the highlighted region can be specified with the "SYM HIGH #" command. If no symbol is specified, or if "SYM HIGH DEF" is used, then the highlighted symbols are shown as solid dark circles (symbol code 10).

Back to List of Commands

(182) Data plotted over a particular range of plot values can be "masked" with the "MASK @@@ #1 #2" command. @@@ can be any one of PXN,PXM,PYN,PYM,PZN,PXR,PYR,PZR. "MASK PXN #1" means "mask values less than #1", "MASK PXM #2" means "mask all values greater than #2", "MASK PYR #1 #2" means "mask all values from #1 to #2 (inclusive)", etc.. #1 and #2 are specified in plot units.

Back to List of Commands

(183) The symbol type (code) used for a "masked" region can be specified with the "SYM MASK #" command. If no symbol is specified, or if "SYM MASK DEF" is used, then the masked symbols use the same symbol type as unmasked symbols.

Back to List of Commands

(184) Once masked, data points can be assigned different attributes. For example, masked lines can be changed to dotted with a "STYL MLIN 2" command, or omitted from the plot with the "LW MLIN 0" command. Some of the commands that set properties of masked data are:


               LW MLIN #         (line wt. of masked lines)
               LW MSYM #         (line wt. of masked symbols)
               STYL MLIN #       (line style of masked lines)
               SYM MASK #        (symbol type for masked symbols)

Back to List of Commands

(185) The "SET SID @@@" command specifies the dataset ID that will be assigned to any dataset saved in a STATPK file with an "ST ...." command. The ID (@@@) can be upto 16 characters long and can be specified either as a literal string, as a character variable (C1,C2 etc.) or as DEF.

If "SET SID DEF" is used then the ID of the saved STATPK dataset will be the same as the ID of the current RAP dataset.

Back to List of Commands

(186) The "OU LSP ..." command computes and outputs "locked" spike rates or counts as a function of the RA-variable(s). Locked spike rates/counts are simply spike rates/counts multiplied by the sync. coefficient at that stimulus point. "OU LSP" and "OU LSP RATE" are the same command.

The binning frequency for computing sync. coefficients is set with the ("HI BF @@@") command.

Back to List of Commands

(187) The "READ(#1,#2) @1,@2,..." command can be used to read values from an ascii (text) file. #1 is the unit that must have been assigned to the file earlier with an "OPF..." command, and #2 is a format number. The format should be specified with a "SET FORMAT # ..." command.

@1,@2... specifies the list of variables into which the values to be read will be placed. This can be a mix of real (V#) and character (C#) variables, and there can be a maximum of 5 variables in one READ... command. The following are some valid READ commands:


          READ(2,8) V1,V2,V3,C8
          READ(3,*) V2,V1,V3,V4,V5
          READ(*,*) V1,V2
          READ(*) V1
          READ V1

The examples above show how the format # or file # can be omitted or replaced by an asterisk (*). The * for file # means that input will be from the keyboard, and a * for the format # means that a free format will be used.

When a free format (*) is specified, then the values must be separated by a proper delimiter. The delimiter is specified by the "SEP ..." command, and is a space by default. Other possibilities for delimiter are "SEP TAB" or "SEP COMMA".

Only floating point variables (V#) can be read with a free format. You must specify a format with "SET FORMAT..." if any of of the variables is type character.

Back to List of Commands

(188) The "WRITE(#1,#2) @1,@2,..." command can be used to write values to an ascii (text) file, or to the terminal screen. #1 is the unit that must have been assigned to the file earlier with an "OPF..." command, and #2 is a format number. The format should be specified with a "SET FORMAT # ..." command.

@1,@2... specifies the list of variables into which the values to be read will be placed. This can be a mix of real (V#) and character (C#) variables, and there can be a maximum of 5 variables in one WRITE... command. The following are some valid WRITE commands:


          WRITE(2,8) V1,V2,V3,C8
          WRITE(3,*) V2,V1,V3,V4,V5
          WRITE(*,*) V1,V2
          WRITE(*) V1
          WRITE V1

The examples above show how the format # or file # can be omitted or replaced by an asterisk (*). The * for file # means that output will be to the screen, and a * for the format # means that a free format will be used.

When a free format (*) is specified, then the values will be separated by a proper delimiter. The delimiter is specified by the "SEP ..." command, and is a space by default. Other possibilities for delimiter are "SEP TAB" or "SEP COMMA".

Only floating point variables (V#) can be written with a free format. You must specify a format with "SET FORMAT..." if any of of the variables is type character.

Back to List of Commands

(189) The "PX PGLG(#) ..." and "PY PGLG(#) ..." commands can be used to position the page legends either as a block, or each page legend line separately. The # within parenthesis is used to specify the line number within the page legend. For example, PGLG(1) is the topmost line, PGLG(2) is the line just below the top, and so on. Some examples:


        PX PGLG 1.0         (all lines moved along X by 1 inch)
        PX PGLG(3) -.7      (only 3rd line moved to left by 0.7 inch)
        PY PGLG(1) 0.5      (only 1st line moved up by 0.5 inch)

Back to List of Commands

(190) The "PX CAP(#) ..." and "PY CAP(#) ..." commands can be used to position captions either as a block, or each caption separately. The # within parenthesis is used to specify a particular caption number. For example, CAP(1) is the topmost caption, CAP(2) is the caption just below the top, and so on. Some examples:


        PX CAP 1.0          (all captions moved along X by 1 inch)
        PX CAP(3) -.7       (only 3rd caption moved to left by 0.7 inch)
        PY CAP(1) 0.5       (only 1st caption moved up by 0.5 inch)

Back to List of Commands

(191) The "Minimum Frequency" for spectrograms is a frequency (in Hz) below which no computation or plotting of the spectrogram is done. The Spectrogram will show a blank space below the "min. freq.". The purpose is to leave out the "noise" at low frequencies that often masks more useful data at higher frequencies. Note that by default all frequencies are included in the scaling and plotting.

Back to List of Commands

(192) The "SET SPIK CHAN #...." command is used to select the UET channel number for which spikes are to be included in subsequent analyses. One or more channels can be selected at the same time. For example:


          SET SPIKE CHAN 0 5 4            (channels 0,4 and 5)
          SET SPIKE CHAN 0                (channel 0 only)
          SET SPIKE CHAN ALL              (all channels)
          SET SPIKE CHAN DEF              (default channels)

At present, "SET SPIK CHAN ALL" and "SET SPIK CHAN DEF" both select all recorded channels.

The "SET SPIKE CHAN ..." command is useful only in those cases where more than one UET (Unit Event Timer) channel was recorded during data collection.

Back to List of Commands

(193) The "OU IAC" and "OU PIAC" commands are used to plot Interval Autocorrelograms for the current data set. The two forms of the autocorrelogram are essentially similar. Post-stimulus onset time is plotted along the Y-axis. If a spike occurs at a particular time (say T) then a histogram is binned along the Y-axis at that point showing all the spike intervals after time T (for IAC) or before time T (for PIAC), upto Y-max.

The IAC and PIAC are in effect two-dimensional histograms. The method is illustrated by the following figure taken from Bertrand Delgutte's artcile "Neural Correlates of Pitch I". Click on the figure for a larger view.

Note: Bertrand's method is the same as "OU PIAC". The Z-dimension of the IAC series plots is "number of spikes".

Back to List of Commands

(194) The "SET IAC BASE #" command is used to specify a minimum "baseline" for IAC and PIAC plots. This baseline number is subtracted from all bins of the plot before display. The default baseline is zero (spikes).

Back to List of Commands

(195) Spectrograms can be plotted in either a traditional grid format (SET SPEC FORMAT GRID), or as "waterfall" plots (SET SPEC FORMAT WATER). "SET SPEC FORMAT GRID" is the same as "SET SPEC FORMAT DEF".

In grid (default) format, time is along the X-axis, and frequency is along the Y-axis. In waterfall format, time is along Y, and frequency is along X. If switching between formats, you must take care to modify and XN,XM and YN,YM commands accordingly.

Click on the following two links to see the same spectrogram plotted in grid format and waterfall format:

Grid format
Waterfall format

Back to List of Commands

(196) The "ZMAG ZS #" command is used to set a "magnification" for the Z-scale of certain 3-D plots (such as waterfall). # must be greater than 0. "MAG ZS DEF" is same as "MAG ZS 1". The value of "MAG ZS" is simply used to multiply the amplitude of each point on certain 3-D plots (such as waterfall). For example, "mag zs 0.5" will make the peaks (in z-direction) looks half the default size, "mag zs 2" will make them appear twice as tall.

Back to List of Commands

(197) The "GV A# RASDV" command is used to fetch standard deviation values computed with the most recent RA computation. The results are returned in the array A#. If it does not already exist then an array of the proper dimension will be created. For example:

          NL SP MEAN
          GV A1 RASDV

In this example the values in A1 will be the standard deviations of the mean spike count per repetition. If more than 99 values were computed then only the first 99 are returned.

Back to List of Commands

(198) Note that the time for one complete FM sweep is equal to (FMRISE+FMFALL+2*FMDWELL), since an equal dwell time occurs after each rise and fall.

Back to List of Commands

(199) The "OU TN ..." commands are used to plot the specified computed value as a function of Trial Number. One curve is plotted for each stimulus point. If there is more than one stimulus point in the Response Area Range (RR), then multiple curves are plotted. For latency computation, the spike number can be specified with the "NUM SPIKE #" command. By default, the first spike latency is computed. The "OU TN SP" command is the same as "OU TN SP RATE".

The values computed with this command can later be retrieved by the "GV A# RATAB" command.

Back to List of Commands

(200) The value of Y-density should be a non-zero positive integer such as 1,2,3.... etc. If Y-density=1, then every point along the Y-direction is plotted, if Y-density=3, then every third point is plotted, and so on. The larger the value of Y-dens, the less dense the plot. The default value depends on type of spectrogram, for "spec pst", the default y-dens is 2.

Back to List of Commands

(201) The " GV V# SLOC C#1 C#2" command searches for sub-string C#1 within the string C#2. If found then V# will contain the starting location, else V# will be zero. If the sub-string occurs more than once then only the first location is returned. For example:

             C1 -
             C2 abcd-xyz
             GV V1 SLOC C1 C2

Then V1 will be equal to 5.

Back to List of Commands

(202) The output for the "OU SAC" command is rather similar to normal autocorrelation histograms, with the main difference being that each spike serves as the reference for spikes in the next trial. Thus, if there are three trials (A,B,C), then each spike of trian A is correlated with spikes in train B, each spike of train B with each of train C, and each of train C with each of train A.

This shuffled autocorrelogram shows periodicities in the spike train associated with the stimulus itself (e.g. its onset or envelope structure), rather than "intrinsic" periodicities. To get "intrinsic" periodicities, one can subtract the shuffled autocorrelogram from the regular one, and get an FFT of the difference.

Back to List of Commands

(203) The "GV A# VVAL" command is used to retrieve the values of the RA variables from the most recent computation. It should be used only after some analysis (e.g. "GR LD") has been done. The array A# should be dimensioned to 10, or left undimensioned. Values of upto 10 RA-vars will be returned in A#. (Of course, if only two variables were varied, then only the first two elements of A# will contain anything useful).

Back to List of Commands

(204) The "OU SPEC GW" command can be used graph the spectrogram of any general waveform stored in a format compatible with RAP and GWE. The dataset ID of the waveform should be spcified first with the ID or DS command.

Back to List of Commands

(205) The "CLFILE #" command is used to close a file that has been previously opened. The file number (#) must be the same as was used earlier with the "OPF #" command.

Back to List of Commands

(206) Upto 50 arrows may be drawn with any RAP plot. The positions (end-points) of the arrows should be specified with the "SET ARROW..." command. Other commands that influence the appearance and shape of arrows are "LW ARROW...", "SZ ATIP..." and "STYLE ARROW..." commands.

The default number of arrows is zero.

Back to List of Commands

(207) The default line weight of arrows is 3.

Back to List of Commands

(208) The "SET ARROW..." command is used to specify the position and length of any arrow that is to plotted. The format is:

        SET ARROW # x1 y1 x2 y2 ["......"]

where "#" is the arrow number (e.g. 1,2,3...) and x1 y1 x2 y2 are the endpoints of the arrow IN PLOT UNITS, i.e. in the same units as the data plotted. For example, if the plot is FREQ vs. SYNC, then x1, x2 should be in units of Hz, and y1,y2 should vary between 0 and 1. The Tip (or Head) of the arrow will be at (x2 y2). An optional "arrow-caption" can be specified immediately after "y2". This caption will be displayed near the tail of the arrow. The rules for arrow-caption specification are the same as the rules for regular captions specified with the "set cap # ..." command, i.e. lines and symbols may be embedded.

Back to List of Commands

(209) Upto 99 peak PST histogram latencies can be fetched with "GV A# PKLAT", after an "OU STAT" or "OU PST" command.

Back to List of Commands

(210) The default is 1st spike latency, but you can specify which spike to compute the latency for by using the "NUM SPIKE #" command, where # is the spike number.

The default analysis window for latency computation is the stimulus duration of the master DSS.

Back to List of Commands

(211) The Analysis Window settings are returned in millisecs. At present, if multiple analysis windows were specified (e.g. "AW 0 10 50 77"), only the first pair is returned (i.e. AWLO will be 0 and AWHI will be 10).

Back to List of Commands

(212) The default size of an arrow tip depends on the length of the arrow itself. If you set the size of an arrow tip to zero, then the arrow will look just like a striaght line.

Back to List of Commands

(213) The Table Header value must be enclosed in double quotes. The maximum length possible for the table header is 40 characters.

Back to List of Commands

(214) Line styles of upto 40 arrows can be specified with the "STYLE ARROW .." command. The last arrow style is extended to any arrows beyond the number specified. For example, if "STY ARR 1 1 0" is used, then the first two lines will be dashed, and the third, fourth and all subsequent lines will will be solid.

To set all arrows to solid, you can use either "STY ARR DEF" or "STY ARR 0".

Back to List of Commands

(215) The FFT of any histogram can be computed and plotted with the "OU FFA @@" and "OU FFP @@" commands, where @@ is the code for the histogram. Some valid choices are:

          OU FFA PST
          OU FFA CH
          OU FFA AC
          OU FFP PST
          etc....
FFA means "Amplitude plot", while FFP means "Phase plot" (both as a function of frequency).

Back to List of Commands

(216) The "GV A# FFH" command should be used after an "OU FFA @@@" or "OU FFP @@@" command. It fetches the results of the most recent FFT of any histogram. The first value in A# will be the DC term, and the second term onwards will be the fundamental and harmonics. Note that in those cases where more than one histogram FFT was computed (even though only one OU FF... command was given), the result in A# will be for the LAST histogram in the series. As an example, if SPL was varied from 10 to 50 dB in steps of 10 dB then if "OU FFA AC" is followed by "GV A1 FFH", then the amplitudes for the 50 dB case will be returned in A1. To get the results for the 30 dB case (e.g.) the "RR X 30 30" command must precede the "OU FFA AC" command.

Back to List of Commands

(217) An "averaged" or trend line is computed with all scatter plots plotted with the "OU SCP" command. It is invisible by default, but can be made visible by using the "LW AVL #" command to set a line weight of 1 or greater. Also, a std. dev. line can be drawn parallel to the averaged line. The following commands determine the appearance of the avaraged and standard dev. lines:

          LW AVL #      (default is 0)
          LW SDAVL #    (default is 0)
          STY AVL #     (default is 0)
          STY SDAVL #   (default is 1)
          COL AVL #
          COL SDAVL #

To draw the averaged line, simply set it's line-weight to a non-zero value. The same for the std. dev. line.

The step size used in computing the "averaged line" is set by using the "NB #" command, which sets the number of steps into which the entire X-range is divided. The default is 10 steps.

Back to List of Commands

(218) It is possible to include symbols and horizontal lines with Captions, Page-Captions and Titles. Thus :

          SET CAP # C# V# "..." SYM(#1,#2,#3,#4) LIN(#1,#2,#3,#4)
          SET PGCAP # C# V# "..." SYM(#1,#2,#3,#4) LIN(#1,#2,#3,#4)
          SET XT # C# V# "..." SYM(#1,#2,#3,#4) LIN(#1,#2,#3,#4)

where #1 is the symbol code (or line style), #2 is the symbol size (or length of line) in inches, #3 is the line weight, and #4 is the color code. Note that #2,#3 and #4 and one or more can be omitted. The symbol code and line style are required, however.

There may be any reasonable number of lines and symbols in a caption, intermixed with any number of V# and C# variables and literal strings ("..."). The overall length may not exceed the max. size allowed for a caption (currently 40). The following are some examples :

          SET CAP 1 SYM(1) "Data set 1"
          SET CAP 2 SYM(2) LIN(0) "Freq=" V3(I5)
          SET CAP 3 SYM(3,.2) C1 LIN(2,.5,,4)

In the last example, the line will have a default line weight and color code=4. Default size for symbols is the same as the caption character size, for lines it is 5 times the caption character size. Default line weight and color are the same as for the caption characters.

Note that it is no longer necessary to interleave literal strings with variables or symbol/line codes. They may be in any combination and order.

Back to List of Commands

(219) The commands "HI XN.." and "HI XM.." allow the setting of XMIN and XMAX of histograms when an FFT is to be computed. These commands only apply when an FFT is to be computed, e.g using "OU FFA .." or "OU FFP ..". If a normal histogram is computed, e.g. "OU PST", then the "XN #" and "XM #" commands are used instead.

Back to List of Commands

(220) The "ADD TAB #" command can be used add a constant to each value in the variable column of the symbol table drawn with RA plots. At present, "ADD TAB DEF" is the same as "ADD TAB 0".

Back to List of Commands

(221) The "PX/PY TABSYM ..." command can be used to position the symbols within symbol tables drawn with RA plots. For example, "PX TABSYM -0.2" will move the column of symbols in the table to the left by .02 inch, while leaving the rest of the table unchanged.

Back to List of Commands

(222) The "FFTA A# [V#]" and "FFTP A#" commands are used to compute the FFT of any array of numbers. A# is any array variable containing the time series, and V# is a single value or a numeric constant.

The FFTA command computes the amplitudes, and the FFTP command computes the Phase values in the frequency domain. Any trailing missing points in A# are ignored, but the number of non-missing points in A# must be a power of 2.

The results of the FFT computation are stored back into the same array A#, i.e. the original contents of A# are lost.

The value of V# determines whether the amplitude values are returned in linear units (V#=1) or dB (V#=0). IF V# is omitted then amplitude is returned in dB units (re 1 amp-unit-rms).

If NP is the number of (non-missing) values in A2, then (NP/2)+1 ampitudes are returned by the FFTA command. Values from 1 to NP/2 contain the harmonics, while the last value A2(np/2+1) will contain the DC term.

The FFTP command returns (NP/2)-1 values (in radians) which are the phase values for all the harmonics except the highest one.

Back to List of Commands

(223) The following command can be used to do a first-order linear regression of two arrays:

          GV A3 REGR A#1 A#2 [V#]

where A#1 contains the X-variable, and A#2 contains the Y-variable values. V# can contain an optional "order of regression", though at this time only V# = 1 is supported, and is also the default.

Results are returned in array A3, and are interpreted as follows:

          A3(1) = Intercept (AA)
          A3(2) = Slope (BB)

  where   Y = AA + BB.X

Back to List of Commands

(224) The "TINC X/Y/Z #" command can be used to specify an increment for tics drawn along the X-,Y- or Z-axis, in plot units. For example "TINC X 50" means that tics will be drawn at intervals of every 50 plot units along the X-axis.

Since the "NUM GR ..." command can also be used for the same purpose, please note that the "TINC ..." command will supercede any "NUM GR ..." command.

Back to List of Commands

(225) The "FTIC X/Y/Z #" command is used to specify the location of the "first tic mark" along the X-,Y- or Z-axis. The value is specified in plot units. The default location of the first tic is normally the same as the minimum value along that axis. Subsquent tics are drawn with an increment that can be set with the "TINC ..." or "NUM GR ..." commands.

Back to List of Commands

(226) The "FTIC XL/YL/ZL #" command is used to specify the location of the "first axis-label" along the X-,Y- or Z-axis. The value is specified as a sequence (tic) number, meaning that, e.g. if "FTIC XL 3", then the first label along the X-axis is drawn with the third tic-mark along the X-axis. The default location of the first label is normally with the first tic along that axis.

Back to List of Commands

(227) The "SET MVM @@@@" command can be used to modify the value (or "marker") that RAP uses to denote "missing values". The default value that RAP uses is -999999 (and this is what is set by "SET MVM DEF"). For example, "SET MVM -999" will cause RAP to use -999 to mark missing points (and conversely, treat data that is equal to -999 as "missing data".)

Note that the missing value marker need not be a number, it can any alphanumeric string up 16 characters long. Thus:

          SET MVM -111
          SET MVM missing_pt

are both valid.

Back to List of Commands

(228) This command must be preceded by either "OU STAT" or "OU IS". Click here to see how RAP computes statistics.

(229) This command must be preceded by "OU STAT". Click here to see how RAP computes statistics.

Back to List of Commands

(230) The "SET RA SYM OPAQ" command will set the symbols drawn with a Response Area plot (e.g. "OU SP" or "OU SYN") to "opaque", i.e. the data lines will be hidden under the symbols. "SET RA SYM TRANS" will set the symbols to "transparent". i.e. data lines will be visible under the symbols. The default is opaque.

Back to List of Commands

(231) The "GV A# HIST" command should be used after any command that computes a histogram (such as "OU PST" or "OU CH"). It fetches the results of the most recently computed histogram bin contents. Note that in those cases where more than one histogram was computed (even though only one OU ... command was given), the result in A# will be for the LAST histogram in the series. As an example, if SPL was varied from 10 to 50 dB in steps of 10 dB then if "OU AC" is followed by "GV A1 HIST", then the histogram for the 50 dB case will be returned in A1. To get the results for the 30 dB case (e.g.) the "RR X 30 30" command must precede the "OU AC" command.

Back to List of Commands

(232) The "OU RVC" can be used to output "RevCor analysis" for any dataset where a general waveform stimulus was used. The output is a "line plot" for each stimulus point, with multiple plots per page if there was more than one stimulus point. The Revcor (or Reverse Correlation) is computed as follows:

For each spike included in the analysis, the program retrieves the stimulus waveform for a time that starts at the spike event time and goes backwards to XMAX millisecs. This waveform segment is averaged for each spike. The end result is a single waveform segment that has been avearged N times (if N = number of spikes) The default analysis window is equal to the stimulus duration time. It can be set by the user also (with "AW .."), but if it exceeds the stimulus duration, the program truncates it down to the actual stimulus duration. The default value of XMAX is 10 millisecs, but can be changed by using the "XM #" command.

The final plot is a mirror image in time, it goes from 0 to XMAX millisecs, but represents a time that is 0 to -XMAX, with 0 being the time of occurrence of each spike. The RVC analysis looks for the (stimulus) general waveform first in the current data file, and then in the gen. wav. file specified by the "GWF ..." command. The results of the RVC computation may be retrieved using the "GV A# HIST" command. The number of spikes included at each stimulus points can be fetched with the "GV A# NSPHIS" command.

You can override the Gen. Waveform ID used for the RVC analysis by specifying a diferent ID with the "GWID ..." command. For example, if the gen. waveform was corrected for phone calibration, then it may be desirable to use the original (uncorrected) waveform for RevCor analysis.

Back to List of Commands

(233) The "OU NSREP" can be used to plot the "Number of Reps with N spks" as a Response Area plot (i.e. vs the RA variables). The spike number (N) is 1 by default, but can be set to anything with the "NUM SPIKE #" command.

Back to List of Commands

(234) The "GV A# NSPHIS" command should be preceded by a call to an analysis program that computes histograms, for example "OU PST", "OU CH" etc. Note: For the case of the Inter-spike interval histogram (OU IS) this command will return the number of "intervals", not the number of spikes.

Back to List of Commands

(235) The "OU RAG ARRAY" command is used to plot a Response Area Grid (RAG) plot from user supplied arrays. Input data for the RAG plot is supplied in array variables (A#). The arrays to be used as the X-, Y- and Z-vars must be specified first, using the following command :

           SPV X A#1 Y A#2 Z A#3

Note : At present, there can only be one array each for X-, Y- and Z-vars. Thus, "spv x a1 y a3 z a2" is OK, while "spv x a1 to a2 y a3 z a4" is not.

Back to List of Commands

(236) Th "SPV ...." command is used to specify variables that hold the values to be plotted or used in subsequent analysis. For example, if we want to plot that values in A2 (along Y) vs. the values in A1 (along X) as a scatter plot, we could use:

        SPV X A1 Y A2

The general format of SPV allows between one (X) and three (X,Y,Z) variables to be specified, depending on the type of analysis. The general format is:

        SPV X A# [TO A#] [Y A# [TO A#] [Z A# [TO A#]]]

This allows a range of arrays to be specified with the "SPV..." command. For example :

        SPV X A1 Y A2 TO A10

then A2 will be plotted vs. A1, A3 vs. A1, A4 vs. A1 etc. Also:

        SPV X A1 TO A10 Y A11 TO A20

then A11 will be plotted vs A1, A12 vs A2, A13 vs A3 etc. Also:

       SPV X A1 to A2 Y A11 to A20

then A11 will be plotted vs A1, A12 vs A2, A13 vs A2, A14 vs A2 etc.

Some analyses that need the "SPV ..." command are "OU SCP", "OU HIS", "OU WATER", "OU RAG ARRAY" etc.

Back to List of Commands

(237) The "SET PST SSW #1 #2" and "SET PST PKW #1 #2" commands specify the windows used with computation of PST parameters. The units of time (#1 and #2) are milliseconds. These commands set the "Steady-State" and "Peak" windows used by the "OU PST" and "OU STAT" commands for computation of certain PST parameters. In particular, the steady state rate is computed only during the steady-state window, and the peak rate is computed only during the peak window. Also, the "peak latency" is computed by computing the highest peak during the peak window and then finding the first bin which is a certain threshold above the steady state rate (computed during the steady state window. The threshold is defined as a spike count that's a specified percentage of the difference between the steady state rate and the peak. The percentage is 20% by default by may be varied with the "PER PKL #" command. Default values for the above windows may be restored by :

         SET PST SSW DEF
         SET PST PKW DEF

The default for the steady state window is the second half of the stimulus duration, or the second half of the analysis window, whichever is less. The default for the peak window is the first half of the stimulus duration, or the first half of the analysis window, whichever is less.

Back to List of Commands

(238) The "GV A# SPKT" and "GV V# NSPKT" commands are normally used together to fetch all the spike times for any trial within any particular stimulus point.

The "GV V# NSPKT" fetches the actual number of spike times returned by the most recent "GV A# SPKT" command, and should therefore be used after the "GV A# SPKT" command.

The "GV A# SPKT" command can only fetch the spike times for a particular trial (rep) of a particular stimulus point within a particular data set, so it may be important to specify which stimulus point is of interest (by using the RR command) and also the trial number by using the "TR .." command.

If you do not specify any stimulus point or any trial number, then the first trial of the first stimulus point will be used. In addition, you may want to specify the analysis window. The default is the entire repetition time.

The spike times are returned in units of millisecs.

Back to List of Commands

(239) The "SUB SLOPE @@@" command can be used to subtract a constant delay from the cumulated phase computation. @@@ can be any of YES, NO or DEF (DEF is same as NO). If YES is specified, then a straight line is fitted to each CPHASE curve using least squares, and the fitted line is then subtracted from the raw CPHASE values in any subsequent "OU CPHASE","OU CPHASE 3D" or "OU RAG CP" commands.

Back to List of Commands

(240) The "GWF @@@@" command can be used to specify a filename (upto 60 chars) that contains the general waveform to be used during analysis. This file spec. may be needed in certain analysis where it is necessary to retrieve the general waveform from a file other than the data file (EDF). An example of such analysis is the "OU RVC" command.

Back to List of Commands

(241) The "GWID @@@@" command can be used to specify a data set ID (upto 12 chars) that identifies the general waveform to be used during analysis. The purpose of specifying a general waveform ID is to override the Gen. Wav. ID which is stored within a dataset header where a general waveform (such as noise) was used as the stimulus. For example, if the gen. waveform was corrected for phone calibration, then it may be desirable to use the original (uncorrected) waveform for RevCor analysis. For Revcor analysis (OU RVC), RAP will use the waveform ID specified with "GWID ...". If none is specified, then it will use the waveform ID which is stored within the dataset. To cancel a GWID specification, simply set it to blank, i.e.

       GWID
without any value. This will force RAP to use the default (stored) ID for subsequent Revcor analyses.

Back to List of Commands

(242) The "OU LH" command is used to make a histogram of the "Nth Spike Latency" for each trial in a stimulus point. The spike number (N) is 1 by default, but can be varied with the "num spike #" command. The default analysis window is equal to the stimulus duration but can be overridden by the "aw ..." command.

Back to List of Commands

(243) The reject window is specified in units of millisecs. It specifies a range of times such that if any spike event is found within that window, then that entire trial is excluded from the current analysis. For example :

          RW 0 10
Here, even if a single event time occurs within the first 10 millisecs of trial, then that entire trial will be excluded, or "rejected" from analyses.

The reject window may simultaneously include upto 10 sub- windows. For example :

          RW 0 10 35 40 50 75
Here, if any spikes occur between 0 to 10 msecs OR from 35 to 40 msecs OR from 50 to 75 msecs after stimulus onset, then that trial will be excluded.

By default, there is no reject window, i.e. no trials are rejected. The command "RW DEF" also clears the reject window, as does the selection of a new dataset with the "ID...", "DS..." or "NX DS..." commands.

Also note that the reject window is applied before the analysis window, so that even events outside the analysis window can cause a trial to be rejected.

Another way to reject trials is with the "TR ..." command.

Back to List of Commands

(244) The "GW A# GW" command is used to read in the (time domain) general waveform which has been specified with an "ID..." or "DS..." command. The following commands are available to get other information about the general waveform:

          GV V# GWLEN           (no. of points in waveform)
          GV V# GWINT           (interval between points in microsecs)
After the waveform has been retrieved, it can be manipulated or plotted using any of the standard RAP commands. For example, the following sequence with plot a histogram showing the amplitude distribution of all the points in a general waveform:
          DF ...
          ID noise10k            (for example)
          GV A1 GW
          GR HIS
The maximum-length waveform that can be retrieved this way is limited by the largest array that can be decleared in RAP. At present this limit is 262,000 points.

Back to List of Commands

(245) The "GV A# ACOL #1 #2 #3" command is used to compute an array of ascending (or descending) values. #1 specifies the number of values to compute, #2 is the first value, and #3 is the increment. The following example shows how to compute an array of 100 points, going between 1 and 100 in steps of 1, in both ascending and descending order:

          GV A1 ACOL 100 1 1    (ascending order from 1 to 100)
          GV A1 ACOL 100 100 -1 (descending order from 100 to 1)
A typical application of this command is to plot a general waveform. For example:
          DF ...
          ID noise10k            (for example)
          GV A1 GW               (read general waveform into A1)
          GV V1 GWLEN
          GV V2 GWINT
          V2 / 1000.             (convert to millisecs)
          GV A2 ACOL V1 0 V2     (creates a "time" column)
          SPV X A2 Y A1
          GR SCP                 (to plot the general waveform)

Back to List of Commands

(246) The "OU CPHASE 3D" command plots the cumulated phase as a 3-D surface plot. The following examples show the same data plotted using "OU CPHASE" and "OU CPHASE 3D".

click here for 2D  or   click here for 3D

Back to List of Commands

(247) The "GV A# HIST" command can be used to retrieve the most recently computed histogram in RAP. For example:

          PL PST
          GV A1 HIST
          PL IS
          GV A2 HIST
will store the PST in A1 and the IS histogram in A2.

For those cases where these is more than one histogram computed/plotted, the one that will be fetched will be the most recently computed one. For example, for a rate curve of 20 to 90 dB, if all histograms are plotted with "PL PST", then the values for 90 dB will be returned with "GV A# HIST".

Back to List of Commands

(248) The "OU FFA RVC" and "OU FFP RVC" commands can be used to compute the amplitude and phase spectrum, respectively, of the Revcor Function.

By default, the X-max on the frequency scale is 2500 Hz, and by default, the Revcor is computed over 10 millisecs, though this can be overridden with a "HI XM #" command, where # is in millisecs. To specify an Xmax other than 2500, use "XM #", where # is in Hz.

Back to List of Commands

(249) The "OU SCP" command is used to make a "scatter plot" from two or more arrays. For example, if we have data in two arrays, A1 and A2, and we wish to plots A2 as a function of A1 (i.e. A1 along X, and A2 along Y), then the following commands can be used:

          SPV X A1 Y A2
          GR SCP
The SPV command is used to specify the variables for the scatter plot, and has many options for specifying multiple arrays for the same plot.

By default, the points in the scatter plot are connected by a line, but the line can be suppressed by use of the "LW LIN 0" command.

The symbol types in the scatter plot can be modified with the "SYM RA #" command, where # is the symbol code.

Back to List of Commands

(250) The "OU WATER" command is used to make a "waterfall plot" from data provided in arrays (A1, A2 etc.). Click here to see a sample waterfall plot

The variables to be included in the plot must be provided in arrays (A# variables), and specified with the "SPV ...." command, similar to what is done for the "OU SCP" command. The Waterfall command produces a line plot, the lines in the rear "hidden" by the lines in front. It is up to the user to specify the A# variables in an order such that lines in front are specified first. For example,

          SPV X A1 Y A3 to A50
          VN WATER
In this example, the X-var is in array A1, the Y variables (48 of them) are in arrays A3 thru A50, and it is assumed that the line A3 will be drawn "in front of" line A4, A4 in front of A5 etc.

Back to List of Commands

(251) The "V# = #1" command is used to set the variable V# equal to the numeric value #1. For example, "V1 = 10.5" will set V1 equal to 10.5.

V# is the notation used for "single-precision floating-point variables", and there can be up 999 such variables (named V1, V2, V3 ... upto V999). They can contain either integer or floating-point values, and the values may be specified in scientific notation also. The equal sign is optional, and may be replaced by a space. The following are examples of setting variables equal to some value:

          V1 = 10.5
          V1 19.5              (OK, because = sign is optional)
          V2 13
          V1 5.5E-7            (OK, scientific notation for value)
          V2 -5.5D10           (OK, though some precision may be lost)
          V2 cat               (Not OK, unless "cat" is numeric)
It is possible to use a variable for the variable number itself. That is, one could use VV2 in place of V1 if V2 was equal to 1. Thus:
          V2 1
          VV2 10.5
is the same as:
          V1 10.5

Back to List of Commands

(252) The "GV A# FSREP" command is used to fetch the number of trials at each stimulus point that have at least "N" spikes. The vale of "N" is specified with the "NUM SPIKE #" command, and is 1 by default.

This command must be preceded by the "OU STAT" command.

Back to List of Commands

(253) The "HI MIRROR YES" command can be used to create the mirror image (along X) of any histogram(s) plotted by RAP. The default is no mirror, so "HI MIRROR DEF" is the same as "HI MIRROR NO". For example:

          PL CH                (normal cycle histograms)
          HI MIRROR YES
          PL CH                (mirror image of normal histograms)
          HI MIRROR DEF
          PL CH                (normal histograms again)
Click here to see a sample histogram with and without mirror.

Back to List of Commands

(254) The "GV V# FDIFF" command is used to fetch the difference frequency between two stimulus tones. Normally, this is used for data stored by the Tone Pips Search program, SER.

In many cases it may be necessary to use "GV V# FDIFF#S" because SER sometimes stores the difference for the slave DSS instead of for the master.

Back to List of Commands

(255) The "GV V# DSS1" and "GV V# DSS2" commands are used to determine whether a particular DSS was used during data collection for the current data set. For example:

          GV V1 DSS1            // will return V1=1 if DSS-1 was used
          GV V1 DSS2            // will return V1=1 if DSS-2 was used
If the specified DSS was not used, then V1=0 will be returned.

Back to List of Commands

(256) The "HWRECT A#" command can be used to half-wave rectify a waveform that is contained in the array named A#. The rectified waveform will replace the original. Note: half-wave rectification means that all values in A# which are less than zero are set equal to zero. Values greater than zero (and missing points) are left unchanged.

Back to List of Commands

(257) The "GV V# ASYNC A#" command can compute the Synch. Coefficient (also called Vector Strength) of the values in any supplied Array. The computed vector strength is returned in V#. Note: Any trailing "missing points" in A# are not included in the computation. The values in A# must all be non-negative.

Back to List of Commands

(258) The "GV V1 MEDD A1 [V2 V3 ...]" command is used to compute the "median" of a population distribution, where A1 is the array that contains the distribution.

V2, V3 etc. are modifiers that select parts of A1 to be included in the computation. If V2, V3... are omitted, then all of A1 is included (except missing points). At present the only option available is V2=1, in which case V3 is interpreted as a "percent of the max. value in A1", and is used to compute a "threshold", THV. The program finds the max value in A1, works outwards from the max in either direction until the first value less than THV is found (for each direction). This defines the range that is included in the median computation. The median is returned in units of the index into A1, (i.e. 1,2,3...etc.), but may be fractional (e.g. 5.5). For example, if A1=(1,3,1) then V1=2, if A1=(1,3,3,1) then V1=2.5. If A1=(2,4) it will return 1.25, etc.

Back to List of Commands

(259) The PKLAT, PKRATE, SSRATE and PKSSR statistics are computed by first binning intermediate PST histograms. The following commands have a direct impact on these:

             NB #
             HI XN #               (histogram limits in millisecs)
             HI XM #
             SET PST SSW #1 #2     (#1 and #2 are in millisecs)
             SET PST PKW #1 #2
             AW #1 #2 ...          (analysis window in millisecs)

Back to List of Commands
Back to Top

7. References

Back to Top

8. Acknowledgements

This work was done under the direction of Dr. W.S. Rhode, and is based upon a similar program for the Harris computer, written originally by W.S.Rhode and V.Soni. It also benefited from the comments of the many users of the Neurophysiology Auditory Laboratory. The spectrograms are computed using a method very similar to Laurel Carney's SPEC program. The multiunit plotting routines were written by John Oghalai.

Support provided in part by a Grant from NIH.

Back to Top

9. Appendix-A

Multi-Unit Analysis

Note : This section written by John Oghalai.

MULTI.FOR (RAP28.EXE) is the multiple-unit spike train analysis program which written between January and August of 1990. This program has been added to RAP and is now available for use in analyzing simultaneous multiple-unit data obtained through DCP. The spike trains time data must be stored in the same data file, but under different data set id #'s. The program contains three different plotting routines.

The first type of plot is the cross-correlation histogram. This takes spike train data from two units, performs a cross- correlation on them, and plots the result vs. a time shift. If a peak occurs in the plot at a time T1, then that means there is a high probability of a spike occurring in train 2 T1 msec after a spike occurs in train 1. If T1 is negative, then the spike in train 2 occurs before the spike in train 1. A region of inhibition would be shown as a valley in the plot.

This plot needs to have the following variables assigned through RAP:


	DF		data file name
	ID		id #1
	ID2		id #2
	TR # # # #	trials #'s: low(1),high(1),low(2),high(2)
	AW 0 #	        * analysis window (<=repetition time)
	XM #		* window displayed on plot (<=analysis window)
	NB #		* # of bins
	RR X # #	* x var (both #'s must be the same)
	RR Y # #	* y var (both #'s must be the same)
	MU SUB ON/OFF	* 1 to subtract corresponding spikes in
			one train from the other, else default 0
	MU DIFF #	* subtract window, if subtracting
	SM HIS #	* 3 to boxcar smooth plot, else default 0

The MU SUBtract command is used only in a special case. Since currently, there is no simultaneous multiple unit spike train data available, the analog output of a single electrode recording from two units at the same time can be digitized and stored on a video tape recorder. This data can be played back and run into DCP twice, once under a high trigger and once under a low trigger. If the two units have different peak heights, the data can be stored as two data sets, one containing only the high spikes and the other containing both the high and the low spikes. By subtracting out spikes with reasonably close times, the two units should effectively be isolated. The MU SUB command would only be used in this case.

There are three different cross-correlation histogram plot types. The simplest correlation is a raw correlation where both interneuronal connections and stimulus effects are shown. Interneuronal connections show up as a sharp peak in the correlogram, while the stimulus effect shows up as a triangular shape with a base width of 2*stimulus duration and the peak occurring at 0 msec time delay. The second type of plot is the raw correlogram subtracting out the pst predictor. The idea behind this plot is to subtract out the stimulus effect while not affecting any interneuronal connections. Unfortunately, this method is not perfect, and with a large # of trials being done, the plot can look very bad (i.e. many artifacts can be created by the pst predictor simulation). The last type of plot is the raw correlogram subtracting out the average. This plot works very well for small display windows (about 20 msec). It is supposed to be a simulation of subtracting out the pst predictor, without any of the problem associated with it. Both the last two types of plots also show plus and minus 2 standard deviation lines.

To run a cross-correlation histogram from RAP, use an appropriate output command (GR,GN,VS,VN) followed by:


	CC RD		raw data correlogram
	CC SPST		subtract out the pst predictor
	CC SAVE		subtract out the average

Also in MULTI.FOR is a two-dimensional scatter plot. On a graph with time on both axis, it plots every combination of spike times between two units. This type of plot is good for getting a general impression of how two units are related. Diagonal lines mean that one unit's spike triggers the other unit. Dark horizontal and vertical bands by the X and Y axis mean that the units are externally stimulated.

This plot needs to have the following variables assigned through RAP:


	DF		data file name
	ID		id #1
	ID2		id #2
	TR # # # #	trials #'s: low(1),high(1),low(2),high(2)
	AW 0 #	        * analysis window (<=repetition time)
	RR X # #	* x var (both #'s must be the same)
	RR Y # #	* y var (both #'s must be the same)
	MU SUB ON/OFF	* 1 to subtract corresponding spikes in
			one train from the other, else default 0
	MU DIFF #	* subtract window, if subtracting

To run a multi-unit 2-d scatter plot from RAP, use an appropriate output command (GR,GN,VS,VN) followed by MUSP.

The third type of plot in MULTI.FOR is a three-dimensional scatter plot or snowflake plot. This plot is very similar to the 2-D version, except that displays three units at a time. Unfortunately, this plot is fairly difficult to read. Often, it is hard to select a good analysis window for the plot. The default is AW=stimulus duration/3.

This plot needs to have the following variables assigned through RAP:


	DF		data file name
	ID		id #1
	ID2		id #2
	ID3		id #3
	TR # # # # # #	trials #'s: low(1),high(1),low(2),high(2)
						low(3),high(3)
	AW 0 #	        * analysis window ((repetition time-2*AW)>0)
			or ((stimulus duration-2*AW)>0)
	RR X # #	* x var (both #'s must be the same)
	RR Y # #	* y var (both #'s must be the same)

To run a snowflake plot from RAP, use an appropriate output command (GR,GN,VS,VN) followed by SNOW.

Soon to be added to DCP is a spike separation routine to separate simultaneous multiple units recorded off of a single electrode. This program is written and working, but hasn't been added to DCP yet. What is needed to be done first is to allow for multiple channel #'s to be stored under the same data set id # in a DCP data file. Once this is accomplished, either data taken from the spike separation routine or from a multi-site electrode can be stored and analyzed. Slight modifications will need to be made to MULTI.FOR. This is why there are channel # labels on the plots, even though they aren't being used yet.

Other variables which need to be incorporated into RAP when Ravi implements multiple channel #'s, rather than multiple DSID's:

U_NUM(3) = array of three integers(currently set to 1,2,3). These will hold the channel #. For cross-correlation and scatter plots,U_NUM(1) & U_NUM(2) are used. For snowflake plots, all three are used.

U_LB(20) = array of characters with letter corresponding to each channel # (now set to A,B,C)

The purpose of these variables is so the user can set up a loop in RAP to perform analyses on all combinations of units (up to 20 units are possible).

If anyone has questions, talk to John Oghalai, Bill Rhode, or Ravi Kochhar. Also, the data I used for testing this program can be copied out of my directory for practice in using these programs. The file is MVG::[OGHALAI]C90018T.DAT. Use ID 1-1 and ID 1-2. Trial 5 starts 1-1 and trial 7 starts 1-2, so for example, you could use from trials 5-195 in 1-1 and trials 7-197 in 1-2. Be sure to use the MU SUB command (default window is 0.3 msec).

* = WILL DEFAULT TO A USEABLE VALUE

Back to Top

10. Sample Plots


	Examples of plots produced by RAP are attached at the end of 
this report.  The following commands were used to make the first 
few of these plots :

		$RAP
		DF R8814
		ID U5-4
		NUM GR X 9
		NUM GBL X 2
		PL SPIKE RATE		(plot spike rate vs. freq.)
		HI BF VAR FMOD		(cyc histograms binned on FMOD)
		PL SYNC
		NUM GR X DEF
		PP X 3
		PP Y 4
		NB 256			(number of bins)
		YM 50
		PL PST
		YM 2
		PL FFA PST		(FFT of PST histograms)
		PP Y 3
		NB 128
		YM 30
		PL CH
		AUTO			(Auto-scaling)
		PL LD			(Latency dot plots)
		YM 60
		PL ISI			(Inter-spike interval hist.)
		PR STAT			(Table of statistics)
		EX

	The following commands were used to make the plot which 
combines  PSTs,ISIs and STAT table on one page :

		:
		LW PGTI 0			SET CAP 2 "NB=100"
		LW TI 1				NB 100
		SZ XX 3.5			PX PLOT 4.5
		SZ YX 1.3			LW PGLG 0
		NUM CAP 2			LW DATE 0
		NB 512				MF ISI
		SET CAP 1 "PST"			GV C2 METAFILE
		SET CAP 2 "NB=512"		LW PGLG 0 0 0 1
		PP X 1				LW TI 0
		PP Y 3				PY PGLG -5.6
		SZ TI .09			NUM CAP 0
		PY CAP -.2			MF STAT
		MF PST				GV C3 METAFILE
		GV C1 METAFILE 			PL COMB C1 C2 C3
		SET CAP 1 "ISI"			:
						etc..
Back to Top

11. Commands in Alphabetic Order

The following is a complete list of RAP commands in ascending alphabetic order. The descriptions have been somewhat shortened, but the numbers in parentheses still refer to the same note numbers as in the full command list.


   *                     No-op, comment line, ignored by RAP (21)
   //                    No-op, comment line, ignored by RAP (21)
   ADD TAB #/DEF         Add a constant to symbol table values (220)
   AUTO AX               Auto-scaling for X-,Y- and Z-axis (6)
   AUTO XX               Auto-scaling for X-axis (6)
   AUTO YX               Auto-scaling for Y-axis (6)
   AUTO ZX               Auto-scaling for Z-axis (6)
   AW #1 #2 [#3 #4...#n #m]  Specify analysis window (millisecs) (3)
   AW DEF                Default value for analysis window (4)
   BSFILE #              Backspace one record over specified file (176)
   C# @@@...@@@          Set value of character variable(169)(164)
   C#1 + C#2             Append C#2 at end of C#1 and store back in C#1(169)(164)
   CHAR @@@1,@@@2,...,@@@n  User defined character var. names (119,118)
   CID1 @@@...@@@        Specify Phone-1 calibration DSID (163)(164)
   CID2 @@@...@@@        Specify Phone-2 calibration DSID (163)(164)
   CLFILE #              Close the file previously opened with OPF(205)
   COL @@ #              Color for any plot element (68)
   COL @@ DEF            Default Color for any plot element (77)
   COL ALL #             Color of all plot elements (76)
   COL ALL DEF           Default Colors for all plot elements (78)
   COL CAP   #1 #2...#n  Colors of upto 12 captions (74)
   COL LG    #1 #2...#n  Colors of upto 20 legends (71)
   COL LI    #1 #2...#n  Colors of upto 40 plotted lines (69)
   COL MS    #1 #2...#n  Colors of upto 6 messages (73)
   COL PGCAP #1 #2...#n  Colors of upto 12 page captions (75)
   COL PGLG  #1 #2...#n  Colors of upto 20 page legends (72)
   COL SY    #1 #2...#n  Colors of upto 40 symbols (70)
   CORR CALP #     	 Specify Phone # for Phase Correction (163)
   CORR MCP #     	 Specify Mechanical Phase Correction (165)
   CORR MVA/FELIX/NONE   Specify node name for UET correction (157)
   DF @@@...@@@          Specify data file name (87)
   DI @@..@@             Output on terminal screen (15)
   DIM A#(#1)            Dimension an array (177)
   DS #                  Specify data set number (2)
   ECHO ON/OFF           Echo commands on screen, or not (171)
   EM @@..@@             Execute (run) specified macro (24)
   END                   Same as EXIT
   EXIT                  Exit from RAP
   FFTA A# [V#]          Compute FFT (amplitude) of given array (222)
   FFTP A#               Compute FFT (phase) of given array (222)
   FONT @@ #             Character Font number of any plot element (59)
   FONT @@ DEF           Default font for any plot element (59)
   FONT ALL #            Font for all plot elements (65)
   FONT ALL DEF          Default font for all plot elements (59)
   FONT CAP   #1 #2...#n  Fonts for upto 12 captions (63)
   FONT LG    #1 #2...#n  Fonts for upto 20 legends (60)
   FONT MS    #1 #2...#n  Fonts for upto 6 messages (62)
   FONT PGCAP #1 #2...#n  Fonts for upto 12 page captions (64)
   FONT PGLG  #1 #2...#n  Fonts for upto 20 page legends (61)
   FTIC X #/DEF          Location of First Tic along X-axis (225)
   FTIC Y #/DEF          Location of First Tic along X-axis (225)
   FTIC Z #/DEF          Location of First Tic along X-axis (225)
   FTIC XL #/DEF         First Tic with a Label for X-axis (226)
   FTIC YL #/DEF         First Tic with a Label for Y-axis (226)
   FTIC ZL #/DEF         First Tic with a Label for Z-axis (226)
   GN @@..@@             Graphics output without hardcopy option
   GO @@..@@             Branch unconditionally to specified record (25)
   GR @@..@@             Output on Graphics Display screen (12)
   GV V#/C#/S#/A#  @@..@@ [ERR=#]     Get value of specified variable (86)
   GWF @@@...@@@         Specify General Waveform file name (240)
   GWID @@@...@@@        Specify General Waveform ID (241)
   HI BF @@..@@          Binning freq for cyc histograms (35)
   HI BFI #1 #2          Binning freq for cyc histograms incremented (36)
   HI BF DEF             Histogram binning frequency to default
   HI MIRROR YES/NO/DEF  Mirror image of histogram(s) (253)
   HI OUT/FULL           Histogram outlines only or full bars (38)
   HI SH #               Histograms to be Shaded using pattern # (37)
   HI SH DEF             Default shading for Histograms (37)
   HI UN                 Histograms to be Unshaded (37)
   HI XM #/DEF           Hist. X-max for use with "OU FFA.." (219)
   HI XN #/DEF           Hist. X-min for use with "OU FFA.." (219)
   HI YV RATE/COUNT      Histogram Y-axis to be Spike rate or Count (105)
   HP @@..@@             Output on HP pen-plotter (16)
   HWRECT A#             Half-Wave rectify an array (256)
   ID @@@...@@@          Specify data set ID (2)
   ID2 @@@...@@@         Specify second data set ID (143)
   ID3 @@@...@@@         Specify third data set ID (143)
   IF @@@1 EQ/NE/GT/LT/LE/GE @@@2 @@@@3   Conditional execution (97)
   LIN XX/YX/ZX          X-,Y- or Z-axis to be linear
   LOG XX/YX/ZX          X-,Y- or Z-axis to be Log
   LW @@ #               Line weights of any plot element (48)
   LW @@ DEF             Default line wts for any plot element (57)
   LW ALL #              Line weights of all plot elements (56)
   LW ALL DEF            Default line weights for all plot elements (58)
   LW ARROW #1 #2...#n	 Line weights of upto 40 arrows (207)
   LW CAP   #1 #2...#n   Line weights of upto 12 captions (54)
   LW LG    #1 #2...#n   Line weights of upto 20 legends (51)
   LW LI    #1 #2...#n   Line weights of upto 40 plotted lines (49)
   LW MS    #1 #2...#n   Line weights of upto 6 messages (53)
   LW PGCAP #1 #2...#n   Line weights of upto 12 page captions (55)
   LW PGLG  #1 #2...#n   Line weights of upto 20 page legends (52)
   LW RAG DATA #         Line weight of RAG data symbols (136)
   LW RAG DATA DEF       Line wt. of RAG data symbols to default (136)
   LW RAG NODATA #       Line weight of RAG "nodata" symbols (136)
   LW RAG NODATA DEF     Line weight of RAG "nodata" symbols to default (136)
   LW SY #1 #2...#n      Line weights of upto 40 symbols (50)
   MAG [X/Y] #           Specify overall plot magnification (167)
   MAG ZS #              Specify Z-scale magnification (196)
   MASK @@@ #1 [#2]      Mask with plot units (182,184)
   MASK @@@ NONE/DEF     Disable plot units mask (182)
   MASK RY #             Set Rayleigh Coefficient mask (144,184)
   MASK RY NONE/DEF      Cancel Rayleigh Coeff. masking (144)
   MCF @@@...@@@         Specify mechanical calibration file (166)
   MF @@..@@             Output to Meta-file (plot file) (20)
   MIN IS #              Minimum Interspike Interval allowed (millsecs)(168)
   ML NONE/BRIEF/LONG/FULL    Message level (default is FULL) (85)
   MU DIFF #             Subtract window for multi-unit (143)
   MU SUB ON/OFF         Subtract one spike train from another (143)
   NB #                  No. of bins in histogram (max 4096) 
   NB DEF                No. of histogram bins to default (93)
   NL @@..@@             Output to Null device (110)
   NUM ARROW #/DEF       Number of Arrows with plot (206)
   NUM CAP #/DEF         No. of captions with plot (0 to 12)
   NUM DIG XL/YL/ZL #    No. of digits after decimal point (30)
   NUM DIG XL/YL/ZL DEF  No. of digits after decimal to default (31)
   NUM GBL X/Y/Z #       No. of grids between labels (32)
   NUM GBL X/Y/Z DEF     No. of grids between labels to default (33)
   NUM GR X/Y/Z #        Number of Grids along X-,Y- or Z-axis (29)
   NUM GR X/Y/Z DEF      No. of grids along X-,Y- or Z- to default (29)
   NUM MS #/DEF          No. of messages with output (0 to 50)
   NUM PGCAP #           No. of page captions with plot (0 to 6) (132)
   NX DS [ERR=#]         Next data set (84)
   OPF # @@@@@@          Open File for read/write access (175)
   OU AC                 Output Autocorrelation histograms
   OU CC RD              Output raw data correlogram (143)
   OU CC SAVG            Output correlogram aft. subtracting average (143)
   OU CC SPST            Output correlogram aft. subtracting PST pred.(143)
   OU CH                 Output Cycle (or Phase) Histograms (11)
   OU CHD                Output Cycle Histogram Dot display (156)
   OU CPHASE             Output Cumulated Phase vs variable
   OU CPHASE 3D		 Output Cumulated Phase vs variable as 3D surface plot (246)
   OU COMB [SAVE] @@1 @@2 [@@3 ...]   Output combined metafiles(98)
   OU COMB [SAVE] C#1 TO C#2          Combine a range of metafiles(98)
   OU DI                 Output directory
   OU FFA @@	         FFT amplitude of any of the histograms (215)
   OU FFP @@     	 FFT phase of any of the histograms (215)
   OU FFA RVC            Amplitude Spectrum of Revcor function (248)
   OU FFP RVC            Phase Spectrum of Revcor function (248)
   OU HAZ ISI            Output Hazard function for ISI histograms (96)
   OU HIS [BC]           Output Histogram from data in array(170)
   OU IAC                Output Interval Autocorrelogram (193)
   OU IR                 Output Isorate curves
   OU ISI                Output Inter-spike interval Histograms (10)
   OU JIH                Output Joint Interval Histogram plots (111)
   OU LAT [MEAN/SD]      Output Mean or Std. Dev. of Nth spike latency (132)
   OU LAT 3D             Output mean latency as a 3D surface plot (149)
   OU LD                 Output Latency Dot Display (88)
   OU LH		 Output n'th spike latency Histograms (242)
   OU LSP [COUNT/RATE/MEAN] Output Locked spike rate/count (186)
   OU MF [SAVE] [@@@@]   Output the specified metafile (101)
   OU MS #               Output specified message (146)
   OU MUSP               Output multi-unit scatter plot (143)
   OU NSREP              Number of Trials with at least N reps. vs variable(233)
   OU PHASE              Output Phase vs. variables
   OU PHASE 3D		 Output Phase vs variable as 3D surface plot
   OU PIAC               Output Pre-Interval Autocorrelogram (193)
   OU PKLAT              Peak spike latency (259)
   OU PKRATE             Peak spike rate (259)
   OU PKSSR              Peak/Steady-state rate ratio (259)
   OU PND [NORM]         Output Pulse Number Distribution (133)
   OU PST                Output Post Stimulus Time Histograms (9)
   OU PST 3D             Output PST histograms as 3D plots
   OU RA                 Output range of variables
   OU RAG ARRAY          RAG plot from data in arrays(235)
   OU RAG COUNT/RATE/LAT Output Response Area Grid Map (135,82)
   OU RAG LAT SD         Std. Dev. of mean N'th spk. Latency in RAG format.(135,210,82)
   OU RAG PH/CPH   	 Response Area Grid Map for Phase(135,82)
   OU RGL [CV]           Output Regularity analysis (CV vs time) (47,58)
   OU RGL MEAN           Output Regularity analysis (Mean & St.dev) (47)
   OU RVC                Revcor. Analysis(232,240)
   OU SAC	         Output Shuffled Autocorrelation histograms (202)
   OU SCP                Scatter Plot(249)
   OU SNOW               Output snowflake plot (143)
   OU SP [COUNT/RATE/MEAN]  Output spike counts or rates vs variable (89)
   OU SP 3D [COUNT/RATE/MEAN] Output spike rate/count as 3D surface (149)
   OU SPEC GW            Spectrogram of general waveform (204)
   OU SPEC IAC           Spectrogram of Interval Autocorrelogram (193)
   OU SPEC PST/AC	 Spectrogram of PST or Autocorrelation histograms(34)
   OU SPF [SAVE/DEL]     Output Spool File and optionally save it (92)
   OU SPKT               Output table of spike times (145)
   OU SSRATE             Steady-state spike rate (259)
   OU STAT               Output Table of selected Statistics (91,158)
   OU SYNC               Output Sync. Coeff. vs variable
   OU SYNC 3D            Output Sync. Coeff. as a 3D surface plot (149)
   OU TH                 Output Threshold (Tuning) curve plot (127)
   OU TN LAT             Spike Latency as a function of Trial Number(199)
   OU TN SP COUNT        Spike Count as a function of Trial Number(199)
   OU TN SP [RATE]       Spike Rate as a function of Trial Number(199)
   OU TN SYNC            Sync. Coeff. as a function of Trial Number(199)
   OU [V#/C#]            Output specified variable value
   OU WATER              Waterfall Plot(250)
   OU ZCA                Output Zero crossing analysis
   OU ZCA PST            Output Zero Crossing Analysis of PST's
   PER #1 #2 ... #n      Percentages above spontaneous for Isorate (66)
   PER DEF               Set default percentages for isorate curves
   PER PKL #             Percent for Peak Latency computation (121)
   PER PKL DEF           Default percent for Peak Latency (121)
   PL @@..@@             Output on Laser plotter (13)
   POR PORT/LAND/DEF     Set plot orientation (173)
   PP #                  Plots per page (27)
   PP DEF                Plots/page to default along X- and Y-dir (28)
   PP X #                Plots/page in X-direction (27)
   PP Y #                Plots/page in Y-direction (27)
   PP X/Y DEF            Plots/page in X- or Y-dir to default (28)
   PR @@..@@             Output on printer (14)
   PX [ABS/REL] @@ #     Set X- or Y- position of any of the
   PY [ABS/REL] @@ #     plot elements (80)
   PX/PY @@ DEF          Any of the above positions to default
   QUIT                  Same as EXIT
   READ(#,#) @1,@2...    Read from specified file (187)
   REAL @@@1,@@@2,...,@@@n  User defined real variable names (117,118)
   RETURN                Return from macro, or exit (26)
   RM @@..@@             Output on RAMTEK graphics screen (17)
   RN @@..@@             RAMTEK output with no hardcopy option
   RR			 Re-set range of X-,Y- and Z-variables (81)
   RR DEF		 Default range for X-,Y- and Z-variables (81)
   RR SEQ #1 #2 [#3]	 Re-set range of stimulus points (81,99)
   RR SEQ DEF		 Def. range for stim. points (all of them) (81)
   RR X #1 #2 [#3]	 Re-set range of X-variable (81,82)
   RR Y #1 #2 [#3]	 Re-set range of Y-variable (81,82)
   RR Z #1 #2 [#3]	 Re-set range of Z-variable (81,82)
   !RUN @@..@@           Run the specified program (22)
   RW #1 #2 [#3 #4...#n #m]  Specify reject window (msecs) (243)
   RW DEF                    Default value for reject window (243)
   SEP TAB/SPACE         Separater between Columns of Print output (109)
   SET ARROW # x1 y1 x2 x2 ["...."]  Set endpoints for arrow no. # (208)
   SET CAP #1 "..." [V#/C# "..." V#/C# ...]    Set caption value (106,218)
   SET CP LAG/LEAD/DEF   Set Cumulated Phase direction (178)
   SET DEF               Set all parameters to default (100)
   SET IAC BASE #	 Min. Baseline for IAC and PIAC plots(194)
   SET IAC BASE DEF	 Default Baseline for IAC and PIAC plots(194)
   SET IR COUNT #1 #2...#n  Specify absolute counts for Isorate curves (142)
   SET IR COUNT DEF         Set default counts for Isorate curves (142)
   SET IR PER #1 #2 ... #n  Percentages above spontaneous for Isorate (66)
   SET IR PER DEF           Set default percentages for Isorate curves (66)
   SET IR RATE #1 #2 ...#n  Specify absolute rates for Isorate curves (141)
   SET IR RATE DEF          Set default rates for Isorate curves (141)
   SET LTRAN X/Y/Z #        Label Transformation code (180)
   SET MS #1 "..." [V#/C# "..." V#/C# ...]     Set value of message (106)
   SET MVM @@@/DEF       Set Missing Value Marker (227)
   SET PGCAP #1 "..." [V#/C# "..." V#/C# ...] Set page caption value (106,131)
   SET PST PKW #1 #2	 Window for Peak rate computation(237)
   SET PST SSW #1 #2	 Window for Steady-state computation(237)
   SET QUEUE @@@..@@     Specify queue name for plot output (128)
   SET QUEUE DEF         Specify default queue name (129)
   SET RA SYM OPAQ/TRANS Set RA symbols to Opaque or Transparent (230)
   SET RAG BASE #        Set baseline for RAG plots (159)
   SET RAG BASE DEF      Default baseline for RAG plots (159)
   SET RGL MINSPK #      Minimum intervals/bin for regl. analysis (153)
   SET RGL MINSPK DEF    Set min. spikes for regularity to default (153)
   SET RGL WIN #1 #2     Set averaging window for regularity analysis (130)
   SET RGL WIN DEF       Set averaging window to default (130)
   SET SID @@@..@@       ID for saved STATPK datasets (185)
   SET SORT ALL/UNIQ/DEF Flag to include/exclude repeat stim. pts after sort (172)
   SET SPEC FORMAT @@@@	 Spectrogram format to WATER/GRID/DEF (195)
   SET SPEC MINF #	 Set "Minimum Frequency" for spectrograms (191)
   SET SPEC MINF DEF	 Default "Minimum Frequency" for spectrograms (191)
   SET SPEC RES #        Spectrogram time resolution (millisecs) (122)
   SET SPEC RES DEF      Default time res. for spectrogram (122)
   SET SPEC SCALE @@@@ [#]  Z-axis scaling for Spectrogram or IAC (179)
   SET SPEC WIN #        Spectrogram sliding time window (msecs) (123)
   SET SPEC WIN DEF      Default size for spec. time window (123)
   SET SPEC YDENS #	 "Y-density" for spectrograms (200)
   SET SPEC YDENS DEF	 Default "Y-density" for spectrograms (200)
   SET SPIK CHAN #1 #2... Specify UET channel numbers(192)
   SET SPIK CHAN ALL      Select all UET channel numbers(192)
   SET SPIK CHAN DEF      Set default UET channel numbers(192)
   SET TABH "....."       Set Table Header string value (upto 40 chars) (213)
   SET TABH DEF           Set Table Header value to default (213)
   SET XT "..." [V#/C# "..." V#/C# ...]    Set value of X-axis Title (106,218)
   SET YT "..." [V#/C# "..." V#/C# ...]    Set value of Y-axis Title (106,218)
   SET YX DEF            Set plot Y-axis to default (134)
   SET YX RIGHT/LEFT     Plot axis to use as the Y-axis (134)
   SET ZT "..." [V#/C# "..." V#/C# ...]    Set value of Z-axis Title (106,218)
   SET XT/YT/ZT DEF      Set specified title to default (67)
   SHIGH XR/YR/ZR #1 #2  Symbol Highlighting Range(181)
   SHIGH XR/YR/ZR DEF    Disable Symbol Highlighting (181)
   SM HIS #              Smoothing for plotted histograms (116,115)
   SM HIS DEF            Default smoothing for histograms (116)
   SM IR #               Smoothing for RA before IR computed (120,115)
   SM IR DEF             Default smoothing for IR computation (120)
   SM LIN #              Smoothing for plotted data lines (114,115)
   SM LIN DEF            Default smoothing for data lines (114)
   SM PKL #              Smoothing for peak latency computation (113,115)
   SM PKL DEF            Default smoothing for peak latency (113)
   SO @@..@@             Output to Spool-file  (18)
   SPF FF                Write a "Form Feed" into current spool file (90)
   SPF NEW [@@@...@@@]   Create new spool file. Optionally specify name (8)
   SPF [OLD] @@@...@@@   Specify name of existing spool file (8)
   SPF ZERO              Clear contents of current spool file
   SPV X A# Y A# Z A#    Specify arrays that hold plot variables (236)
   ST @@..@@             Output to STATPK file (19)
   STF NEW [@@..@@]      Create new STATPK file (108)
   STF [OLD] @@@...@@@   Specify name of existing STATPK file (107)
   STYLE @@ #            Line style for any plot element (102)
   STYLE @@ DEF          Default line styles for any plot element (102)
   STYLE ALL #           Line style of all plot elements (102)
   STYLE ALL DEF         Default line styles for all of the above (102)
   STYLE ARR #1 #2...#n  Line styles of upto 40 arrows (214)
   STYLE LI #1 #2...#n   Line styles of upto 40 plotted lines (103)
   SUB #                 Subtract constant from each spike time (112)
   SUB SLOPE YES/NO/DEF  Subtract constant slope from Cumulated Phase (239)
   SYM DOT #             Symbol # for latency dot display (124)
   SYM DOT DEF           Latency Dot symbol to default (125)
   SYM HIGH #            Symbol code for Highlighting (181)
   SYM MASK #            Symbol code for masked data (183)
   SYM RAG DATA #        Symbol # for RAG data points (139)
   SYM RAG DATA DEF      Default symbol for RAG data points (139)
   SYM RAG DATA NUM      Numeric values for RAG data points (139)
   SYM RAG NODATA #      Symbol # for RAG "nodata" points (138,139)
   SYM RAG NODATA DEF    Default symbol for RAG "nodata" points (138,139)
   SYM RAG NODATA NUM    Numeric values for RAG "nodata" points (138,139)
   SYM SPEC #            Symbol # for spectrograms (124)
   SYM SPEC DEF          Spectrogram symbol to default (126)
   SZ @@ #               Size of any one of plot elements (inches) (39)
   SZ @@ DEF             Default sizes for any plot element (46)
   SZ ALL DEF            Default sizes for all plot elements (47)
   SZ ATIP #1 #2...#n    Sizes of upto 50 arrow tips (212)
   SZ CAP   #1 #2...#n   Sizes of upto 12 caption line chars (44)
   SZ LG    #1 #2...#n   Sizes of upto 20 legend line chars (41)
   SZ MS    #1 #2...#n   Sizes of upto 6 message line chars (43)
   SZ PGCAP #1 #2...#n   Sizes of upto 12 page caption line chars (45)
   SZ PGLG  #1 #2...#n   Sizes of upto 20 page legend line chars (42)
   SZ RAG MAXSY #        Size of max. symbol on RAG plots (137)
   SZ RAG MAXSY DEF      Default size for max. symbol on RAG plots (137)
   SZ RAG MINSY #        Size of min. symbol on RAG plots (137)
   SZ RAG MINSY DEF      Default size for min. symbol on RAG plots (137)
   SZ RAG NDSYM #        Size of "nodata" symbols on RAG plots (137,138)
   SZ RAG NDSYM DEF      Default size for "nodata" symbols on RAG plots (138)
   SZ SY    #1 #2...#n   Sizes of upto 40 symbols (inches) (40)
   SZ TABSYM #/SYM/DEF   Size of Table Symbols (174)
   TINC X #/DEF          Tic increment along X-axis (224)
   TINC Y #/DEF          Tic increment along Y-axis (224)
   TINC Z #/DEF          Tic increment along Z-axis (224)
   TR #1 #2 [#3 #4...#n #m]  Specify trials to be included in analyses(94)
   TR DEF                Default value for trial numbers (95)
   V# = #1               Set value of variable (251)
   V#1 @ V#2             Replace V#1 using arithmetic computation (147)
   V#1 GCF V#2           Compute Greatest Common Factor (148)
   VAX #                 Viewing angle along X (degrees) (150)
   VAX DEF               Default viewing angle along X (150)
   VAY #                 Viewing angle along Y (degrees) (150)
   VAY DEF               Default viewing angle along Y (150)
   VDIS #                Viewing distance for 3D surface plots (151)
   VDIS DEF              Default viewing distance (151)
   VN @@..@@             VAXstation window output without hardcopy option
   VS @@..@@             Output to VAXstation window
   WAIT                  Same as "WAIT PLOT" followed by "WAIT QUEUE"
   WAIT #                Wait specified number of seconds
   WAIT PLOT             Wait for plots to finish
   !WAIT QUEUE [PL/HP/PR] Wait for specified Queue to free up (104)
   WRITE(#,#) @1,@2...   Write to specified file (188)
   XC @@..@@             Execute the specified system command (23)
   XM #                  Maximum value along X-axis (5)
   XM DEF                Default value for X-maximum (7)
   XN #                  Minimum value along X-axis (5)
   XN DEF                Default value for X-minimum (7)
   XV #/@@@..@@          X-variable to  specified number or name (83)
   YM #                  Maximum value along Y-axis (5)
   YM DEF                Default value for Y-maximum (7)
   YN #                  Minimum value along Y-axis (5)
   YN DEF                Default value for Y-minimum (7)
   YV #/@@@..@@          Y-variable to  specified number or name (83)
   ZM #                  Maximum value along Z-axis (5)
   ZM DEF                Default value for Z-maximum (7)
   ZN #                  Minimum value along Z-axis (5)
   ZN DEF                Default value for Z-minimum (7)
   ZV #/@@@..@@          Z-variable to  specified number or name (83)
Back to Top

If you have questions about, or suggestions for, this document, please send them by e-mail to kochhar@physiology.wisc.edu

Return to Documentation Page
Back to The Basement
This page last modified on : Mar. 24, 2005